Article Classification

Environmental Science


In developing countries, on average, one out of five children die from pneumonia. Death from pneumonia is most prevalent in Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia. Many factors can cause pneumonia. In Jakarta, the prevalence period of pneumonia in toddlers reached 19.6‰, which is higher than the national prevalence period of only 18.5‰. This study used a cross-sectional research design to analyze the relationship between disease prevalence and risk factors simultaneously. Results showed that, out of 721 children under 5 years old investigated in this study, 31 toddlers suffered from pneumonia. Furthermore, bivariate analysis showed that two variables were related to the incidence of pneumonia, namely, low maternal education (odds ratio [OR] = 2.325, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.093–4.946) and living room ventilation10% of the total space because the lack of air circulation induces the transmission of pneumonia.


Berkeley Lab. (2018). Ventilation rates and health in homes. Quality Edge.


Bruce N. G., Dherani, M. K., Das J. K., Balakrishnan, K., Adair-Rohani, H., Bhutta, & Z. A., Pope Dan. (2013). Control of household air pollution for child survival: estimates for intervention impacts. BMC Public Health, 13(S8).


Buchner, H., & Rehfuess, E. A. (2015). Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis. PLoS ONE, 10(e0128933).


Chen, Y., Williams, E., Kirk, M. (2014). Risk factors for acute respiratory infection in the Australian community. PLoS ONE, 9(e101440).


De Francisco, A., Morris, J., Hall, A. J., Schellenberg, J. R. M. A., & Greenwood, B. M. (1993). Risk factors for mortality from acute lower respiratory tract infections in young Gambian children. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22(1174–82).


EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (n.d.). Improving indoor air quality.


Ferdous, F., Dil Farzana, F., Ahmed, S., Das, S. K., Malek, M. A., Das, J., ... & Chisti, M. J. (2014). Mothers’ perception and healthcare seeking behavior of pneumonia children in rural Bangladesh. ISRN Family Medicine, 2014.

Freidl, G. S., Spruijt, I. T., Borlée, F, Smit, L. A. M., van Gageldonk-Lafeber, A. B., Heederik, D. J. J., … van der Hoek, W. (2017). Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands. PLoS ONE, 12(3): e0174796.


Hockenberry, M. J., Wilson, D., & Rodgers, C. C. (2016). Wong’s essentials of pediatric nursing-. Missouri: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Ho, S-W, Yeh, C-B, Yang, S-F, Yeh, H-W, Huang, J-Y, & Teng, Y-H. (2017). Pneumonia is an independent risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess: A population-based, nested, case-control study. PLoS ONE, (12), e0178571.


Kemkes (2012). Health Profile of DKI Jakarta 2012.


Kim, J. E., Kim, U. J., Kim, H. K., Cho, S. K., An, J. H., Kang, S-J, … Jang, H-C. (2014). Predictors of viral pneumonia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. PLoS ONE, 9, e114710.


Liu, L., Oza, S., Hogan, D., Perin, J., Rudan, I., Lawn, J. E., … Black R. (2015). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis. The Lancet, 385(9966), 430–440.


Manabe, T., Teramoto, S., Tamiya, N., Okochi, J., Hizawa, N. (2015). Risk factors for aspiration pneumonia in older adults. PLoS ONE, 10, e0140060.


McNally, L. M., Jeena, P. M., Gajee K, Thula, S. A., Sturm, A. W., Cassol, S., … Goldblatt, D. (2007). Effect of age, polymicrobial disease, and maternal HIV status on treatment response and cause of severe pneumonia in South African children: a prospective descriptive study. The Lancet, 369(8571), 1440–1451.


Naz, S., Page, A, Agho, K. E. (2017). Household air pollution from use of cooking fuel and under-five mortality: the role of breastfeeding status and kitchen location in Pakistan. PLoS ONE, 12, e0173256.


Noordam, A. C., Carvajal-Velez, L., Sharkey, A. B., Young, M., & Cals, J. W. L. (2015). Care seeking behaviour for children with suspected pneumonia in countries in sub-Saharan Africa with high pneumonia mortality. PLoS ONE, 10, e0117919.


Ostapchuk, M., Roberts, D. M., & Haddy, R. (2004). Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children. American Family Physician, 70(5), 899-908.


Report on result of National Basic Health Researches (RISKESDAS). (2013). Jakarta: Research and Development Agency of the Indonesia Ministry of Health. Depkes.


Rudan, I., Boschi-Pinto, C., Biloglav, Z., Mulholland, K., & Campbell, H. (2008). Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86, 408-416B.


Saha S, Hasan M, Kim L, Farrar, J. L., Hossain, B., Islam, M., … Saha, S. K. (2016). Epidemiology and risk factors for pneumonia severity and mortality in Bangladeshi children introduction. BMC Public Health, 16, 1233.


Shah, N., Ramankutty, V., Premila, P. G., & Sathy, N. (1994). Risk factors for severe pneumonia in children in south Kerala: a hospital-based case-control study. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 40, 201–2066.


Sigaúque, B., Roca, A., Bassat, Q., Morais, L., Quintó, L., Berenguera, A., … Alonso, P. L. (2009). Severe pneumonia in Mozambican young children: clinical and radiological characteristics and risk factors. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 55(6), 379–387.


Tapiainen, T., Paalanne, N., Arkkola, T., Renko, M., Pokka, T., Kaijalainen, T., & Uhari, M. (2014). Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers. PLoS ONE, 9, e90585.


Turner, C., Turner, P., Carrara, V., Burgoine, K., Htoo, S. T. L., Watthanaworawit, W., … Nosten, F. (2013). High rates of pneumonia in children under two years of age in a South East Asian refugee population. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e54026.


Wardlaw, T. M., Johansson, E. W., & Hodge, M. J. (2006). Pneumonia: the forgotten killer of children. New York: UNICEF.

World Health Organization. (1997). Health and environment in sustainable development: five years after the Earth Summit: executive summary.


World Health Organization. (2019). Pneumonia: fact sheet.


Zar, H. J., & Ferkol, T. W. (2014). The global burden of respiratory disease—impact on child health. Pediatric Pulmonology, 49(5), 430–434.


Zhu, J., Zhang, X., Shi, G., Yi, K., & Tan, X. (2015). Atrial fibrillation is an independent risk factor for hospital-acquired pneumonia. PLoS ONE, 10, e0131782.




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.