ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on communities in the Philippines has affected in-person research on community engagement. This paper highlighted the necessity for continuous research on social justice during the pandemic in order to discover ways in which people can survive and thrive through the trying times. The paper is based on the extension program of the Cebu Normal University (CNU) Research Institute of Public Governance on Social Justice. It analyzed Kaangayan, the public education workshop on social justice’s report to the Office of Extension Services and International Linkages. The report is based on an outreach extension service conducted in a barangay (community) in Cebu, Philippines. The pure “fishbowls” qualitative research method was employed to conduct the analysis, and participants were selected through an open invitation that was extended to the barangay. Based on the concluded activity, the report was prepared and submitted to the Office of Extension Services and International Linkages. Subsequently, all data was consolidated, processed, saturated, and finalized toward the qualitative results on policy analysis based on the technical/completion of outreach extension project and the results of the technical evaluation.


Adler, R. P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What Do We Mean By “Civic Engagement”? Journal of Transformative Education 3(3), 236-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541344605276792

Anderson, Jock & Feder, Gershon. (2003). Rural Extension Services (Vol. 2976). World Bank Publications.

ASEAN Studies Centre. (2008). ASEAN Community: Unblocking the Roadblocks. ISEAS Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789812308443

Better Evaluation. (2019, November 19). Fishbowl Technique.


Campbell, D. E. (2013). Social networks and political participation. Annual Review of Political Science, 16, 33-48. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-033011-201728

Cassidy, C., Brunner, R., & Webster, E. (2014). Teaching human rights? “All hell will break loose!” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 9(1), 19-33.


Cebu Normal University Manual on Extension Services and International Linkages. (2019, January 04). Cebu Normal University Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City, Philippines. https://www.cnu.edu.ph/

Cebu Normal University. (2010). BOR Resolution No. 13, s. 2010. Cebu Normal University Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City, Philippines. https://www.cnu.edu.ph/

Cebu Normal University. (n.d.). Vision-Mission. Cebu Normal University Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City, Philippines. https://www.cnu.edu.ph/

Cochran-Smith, M., Shakman, K., Jong, C., Terrell, D. G., Barnatt, J., & McQuillan, P. (2009). Good and just teaching: the case for social justice in teacher education. American Journal of Education, 115(3), 347-377.


Dempsey, S. E. (2010). Critiquing community engagement. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(3), 359-390. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318909352247

Drissi, S. (2014). Citizenship education reconsidered in the era of democratic transition. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 13(2), 93-103.


El-Bassel, N., Gilbert, L., Hunt, T., Wu, E., Oga, E. A., Mukherjee, T. I., … & Rapkin, B. (2021). Using community engagement to implement evidence-based practices for opioid use disorder: A data-driven paradigm & systems science approach. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 222, 108675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108675

Fischer, F. (2012). Participatory Governance: From Theory To Practice. In The Oxford Handbook of Governance. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199560530.013.0032

Forman, S. E. (1903). The aim and scope of civics. The School Review 11(4), 288-294. https://doi.org/10.1086/434467

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.

Gupta, J., & Vegelin, C. (2016). Sustainable development goals and inclusive development. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 16(3). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-016-9323-z

Hackman, H. W. (2005). Five essential components for social justice education. Equity and Excellence in Education, 38(2), 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680590935034

Head, B. W. (2007). Community engagement: Participation on whose terms? Australian Journal of Political Science, 42(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/10361140701513570

Heads of State/Government of the ASEAN. (2015, November). ASEAN Community Vision 2025. https://www.asean.org/wp-content/uploads/images/2015/November/aec-page/ASEAN-Community-Vision-2025.pdf

Henry, S. G. (2011). The tyranny of reality. Jama, 305(4), 338-339.


Hirsch, S., & Shulman, L. C. (1976). Participatory governance. Social Work in Health Care, 1(4):433-46. https://doi.org/10.1300/j010v01n04_04

Hoekema, D. A., & Ehrlich, T. (2000). Civic responsibility and higher education. Academe, 86(5), 79. https://doi.org/10.2307/40251931

Hur, M. H. (2006). Empowerment in terms of theoretical perspectives: exploring a typology of the process and components across disciplines. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(5), 523-540. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20113

Hytten, K., & Bettez, S. C. (2011). Understanding Education for Social Justice. Educational Foundations, 25(1-2), 7-24. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ925898

Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB). (n.d.). Outreach, Extension and Continuing Education (OECE). http://www.iub.edu.bd

Jennings, B., & Dawson, A. (2015). Solidarity in the moral imagination of bioethics. Hastings Center Report, 45(5), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1002/hast.490

Jennings, B. (2018). Solidarity and care as relational practices. Bioethics, 32(9), 553–561. https://doi.org/10.1111/bioe.12510

Juwita, R. (2020). The Right to Education in the Era of the ASEAN Community. Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law, 21(2). https://doi.org/10.1163/15718158-21020002

Langhelle, O. (2000). Sustainable development and social justice: Expanding the rawlsian framework of global justice. White Horse Press Environmental Values, 9(3), 295-323. https://doi.org/10.3197/096327100129342074

Lapiz, G. (2016). Justice in the Philippine political and socio-economic environments. University of the Visayas - Journal of Research, 10(1), 99-104.


Mason, K. (2014). Justice in building, building in justice: The reconstruction of intragenerational equity in framings of sustainability in the eco-building movement. White Horse Press Environmental Values, 23(1), 99-118,


Maton, K. I. (2008). Empowering community settings: agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(1-2), 4-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-007-9148-6

McCloskey, D. J., McDonald, M. A., & Cook. (2013). Community Engagement: Definitions and Organizing Concepts from the Literature. Principles of Community Engagement, 41. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/communityengagement/pdf/PCE_Report_Chapter_1_SHEF.pdf

Miller, R. L., & Shinn, M. (2005). Learning from communities: overcoming difficulties in dissemination of prevention and promotion efforts. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35(3-4), 169-183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-3395-1

Minkler, M. (2004). Ethical challenges for the “outside” researcher in community-based participatory research. Health Education and Behavior 31(6), 684-697.


Nilsson, J. E., & Schmidt, C. K. (2005). Social justice advocacy among graduate student in counseling, an initial exploration. Journal of College Student Development 46(3), 267-279. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2005.0030

Office of the Vice-President for Research, Development and Extension Batangas State University. (n.d).

http://batstateu.edu.ph/sites/files/transparency_seal/ operations_manual/vprde_eso_operations_manual_part2.pdf

Ontoy, D. S., & Paspasan, R. M. (2016). Community development and divergent forces in Philippine State Universities and Colleges: Developing a protocol in evaluating extension projects towards community empowerment. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 4(4), 1-8. https://www.academia.edu/download/62081082/APJMR-2016.

Persson, M. (2015). Education and political participation. British Journal of Political Science, 45(3), 689-703. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123413000409

Popescu, H. G. (2008). Knowledge society. Metalurgia International, 13(1), 37-41. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-34809-8_3

Quennerstedt, A. (2020). Educational aims of rights education in primary school–zooming in on teachers and pupils in two classes. Education 3-13, 48(5), 611–624. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2019.1635629

Republic of the Philippines. (1994). Section 8 (RA 7722).


Republic of the Philippines. (2013). What is K to 12 program?. Official Gazette Government of Philippines.


Republic of the Philippines National Economic Development Authority. (2017). Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022. http://www.neda.gov.ph/philippine-development-plan-2017-2022/

Republic of the Philippines Department of Budget and Management. (2012). Position Classification and Compensation Scheme for Faculty Positions in State Universities and Colleges. https://www.dbm.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Manual-on-PCC-Chapter-7.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3t7xj-pMFk-L3xE1pdIP2wZGy8Thmltc8p6myDZ70 QhHpNUuy-Uq6q7os

Republic of the Philippines. (2016, August 29). Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act 9184. Official Gazette of Philippines.

https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2016/08/29/ implementing-rules-and-regulations-of-republic-act-no-9184/

Robinson, C., Phillips, L., & Quennerstedt, A. (2020). Human rights education: developing a theoretical understanding of teachers’ responsibilities. Educational Review, 72(2), 220–241. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2018.1495182

Roti Chakraborty Senior Officer Outreach, Extension and Continuing Education (OECE) Office of the Pro-Vice Chancellor Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB)

Riezanova, N. (2020). The concept of citizenship as the core of civic education. International Scientific Journal of Universities and Leadership, 9, 87-97. https://doi.org/10.31874/2520- 6702-2020-9-1-87-97

Stone, C. N. (2001). Civic capacity and urban education. Urban Affairs Review, 36(5), 595-619. https://doi.org/10.1177/10780870122185019

National Economic and Development Authority. (2017). Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022. Pasig City, Philippines: National Economic and Development Authority.


National Economic and Development Authority Region 7. (2018). Central Visayas Regional Development Research Agenda 2017-2022. Cebu City, Philippines: National Economic and Development Authority Regional Office 7. National Economic and Development Authority Region 7.


Thompson, V. L. S., Ackermann, N., Bauer, K. L., Bowen, D. J., & Goodman, M. S. (2021). Strategies of community engagement in research: Definitions and classifications. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibaa042

United Nations. (2020, July 07). #Envision2030: 17 goals to transform the world for persons with disabilities. https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/envision2030.html

Villamejor-Mendoza, M.F. (2015, July 16-18). Policy Reforms to Improve the Quality of Public Services in the Philippines.

https://ncpag.upd.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/The-Quality-of-Public-Services-in-the-Philippines_Villamejor- Mendoza.pdf

Wronka, J. (1994). Human Rights and Social Policy in the United States: An educational agenda for the 21st century. Journal of Moral Education, 23(3), 261–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305724940230304



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.