Author ORCID Identifier

Moses Kiwanuka (000-0002-0153-4800)

John Bosco Niyomukiza (0000-0002-9783-1649)

Article Classification

Environmental Science


The occurrence of flooding events and the associated risks are increasing in the urban areas of most developing countries. Flooding in any circumstance causes major stresses on affected area’s economic, social and environmental regimes. Therefore, the current study presents a flood analysis and hydraulic competence of existing drainage structures on some selected roads of Addis Ababa City, after integration with Addis Ababa Light Rail Transit (AALRT) Drainage Systems. The existing side drains and cross drainage structures located within the study area were inspected and assessed to ascertain different aspects relating to their performance. Different watersheds were delineated. Hydrological analysis was then carried out using Geospatial tools such as ARCGIS, ARCSWAT, and HEC GEOHMS to determine the different watersheds contributing to the flows. The flows were obtained from the rational method for areas less than 0.5 km2 and HEC HMS for areas greater than 0.5 km2. The hydraulic analysis was carried out using HY-8 for the culvert and the Hydraulic toolbox for side drains. It was found from field surveys and measurements that the existing side drain of 900 mm circular pipe could not convey the maximum flow. The existing box culvert, which comprised of one barrel was able to convey the design flow of 29.52 m3/s with a headwater elevation of 2300.94 m. The existing box culvert was sufficient in conveying the designed flow since its headwater elevation was lower than that of the roadway elevation. However, observations like the presence of accumulated silt, debris within most side drains, and an undersized side drain reduced its hydraulic competence. The undersized side drain was redesigned by increasing its diameter to 1200 mm. The study acts as a yardstick for drainage assessment, especially for existing structures, an indicator for identifying the most flood-prone areas along the railway track. It recommended an intermediate cross culvert before Lancha, regular desilting, and putting screens at inlets of side drains and some distance before the entrance of the culverts. Periodic maintenance of the existing drainage structures and widening of the pipe conduits for the side drains to about 1200 mm for easy maintenance is also necessary.


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