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Article Title

Geostationary Orbit Slot Reconceptualization In Accommodating the South

Abstract

Geostationary Orbit (GSO) located above the equator is deemed as limited resources with strategic position for satellites in outer space. As today, the majority who possess GSO slots are non-equatorial states, in this context developed countries. The distribution of orbital slots in the GSO has been discussed among scholars from the developing states for decades. In the past, the developing states ever formed the “Bogota Declaration” aimed to ensure the developing states possess special rights over the GSO slot. The declaration arose from the distribution of the GSO slot by unequal treatment and dissatisfaction to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in global governance context. Concurrently the distribution of the GSO slot is based on a first-come-first-serve basis, recalling satellite technology development in the developing states is crawling; in contrast with developed states in which their satellite technologies are snowballing. This fact commonly disadvantages the developing states in many ways, they have an enormous risk of potential satellite re-entry as an accident for the developing states, equatorial states, and they have limited access to put their satellite above their skies. This article strives to provide recommendation that GSO slot distribution should lead to an unorthodox approach, namely to ensure developing countries have equal rights to GSO. The findings of this study argue that the current international space law regime is excessively “western-centric” and fails in accommodating developing countries’ interests. The special and differential treatment principle could serve as a basis for granting special rights to developing countries to utilize the GSO.

Bahasa Abstract

Geostationary Orbit (GSO) yang terletak di atas khatulistiwa dianggap sebagai sumber daya yang terbatas dengan posisi strategis untuk menempatkan satelit di luar angkasa. Seperti saat ini, mayoritas yang memiliki slot GSO adalah negara-negara non-khatulistiwa, dalam konteks ini negara-negara maju. Distribusi slot orbit di GSO telah dibahas di antara para pakar dari negara-negara berkembang selama beberapa dekade. Di masa lalu, negara berkembang pernah membentuk “Deklarasi Bogota” yang bertujuan untuk memastikan negara berkembang memiliki hak khusus atas slot GSO. Deklarasi tersebut dibentuk atas pembagian slot yang yang tidak setara terhadap negara-negara berkembang dan ketidakpuasan kepada International Telecommunication Union (ITU) dalam konteks tata kelola global. Secara bersamaan distribusi slot GSO didasarkan pada basis first-come-first-serve, mengingat perkembangan teknologi satelit di negara berkembang sedang merangkak; berbeda dengan negara-negara maju di mana teknologi satelit mereka berkembang pesat. Fakta ini umumnya merugikan negara-negara berkembang dalam banyak hal, seperti potensi kecelakaan satelit saat kembali ke Bumi, dan mereka memiliki akses terbatas untuk menempatkan satelit mereka di orbit di atas negara mereka. Artikel ini berusaha memberikan rekomendasi bahwa distribusi slot GSO harus mengarah pada pendekatan yang tidak ortodoks, yaitu memastikan negara-negara berkembang memiliki hak yang sama terhadap GSO. Temuan penelitian ini berpendapat bahwa rezim hukum antariksa internasional saat ini terlalu “western-centric” dan gagal mengakomodasi kepentingan negara berkembang. Prinsip perlakuan khusus dan berbeda dapat menjadi dasar pemberian hak khusus kepada negara berkembang untuk memanfaatkan GSO.

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