In the 16th., 17th. and 18th. century, the first ideas of educative reform in France appeared in litterary master pieces. Rabelais wrote his critics and proposals on child education in his stories Pantagruel (1532) and Gargantua (1534), developped later in the Essays (three volumes) written by Montaigne and in Rousseau’novel, Emile. Actually the same ideas were supported also by Descartes in Discours de la Méthode (1637) and Voltaire in L’Ingénu (1767). The central issue was the opposition between the old system of education focusing on learning by heart and theories and the system they proposed which gave importance on the formation of the way of thinking, in a pleasant learning atmosphere, in relation to real life and nature. Officially French education reform was started by the Minister of Education Jules Ferry in 1880 in the decrees proclaming compulsory education in the primary school, free of charge, and the separation between secular and religious education

Bahasa Abstract

Pada abad-abad 16, 17 dan 18, gagasan reformasi pendidikan di Prancis muncul pertama-tama dalam karya sastra. Dimulai oleh Rabelais dalam dongeng-dongengnya Pantagruel (1532) dan Gargantua (1534), tulisan tentang pendidikan dikembangkan dalam Essais (tiga jilid) karangan Montaigne (1580), dan dalam roman Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Emile (1762). Gagasan yang sama didukung pula antara lain oleh Descartes dalam Discours de la Méthode [Risalah tentang Metode] (1637) dan oleh Voltaire dalam dongengnya L’Ingénu (1767). Intinya adalah pertentangan antara sistem pendidikan lama yang mementingkan hafalan dan teori dengan sistem pendidikan baru yang mereka usulkan, yang lebih mementingkan pembinaan nalar, cara berpikir, dalam suasana belajar yang menyenangkan, yang dikaitkan dengan kehidupan nyata serta alam sekitar. Secara resmi reformasi pendidikan Prancis baru dicanangkan Menteri Pendidikan Jules Ferry pada tahun 1880 dengan pembuatan peraturan wajib belajar di sekolah dasar, biaya belajar cuma-cuma dan pemisahan pendidikan formal di sekolah dari pendidikan keagamaan.



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