Corresponding to the current pandemic issue, Covid-19 has driven unprecedented economic loss and instability to many, particularly among low-income families, especially in Asia. In context, families involved single mothers who are markedly affected by job loss; thus, low-income households had markedly affected the well-being and development of children. In addition to family environment, sociodemographic variables, such as socioeconomic status, educational level of parents, and parental conflict, had also been associated with problematic or competent behaviors during childhood. This scoping review aimed to determine current knowledge regarding the impact of single motherhood on the emotional well-being of a child. This review was reported in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Three databases, namely Scopus, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), were used for data scoping. A total of 341 studies were identified, but only 15 studies conducted in the Asian continent were eligible for selection. Results showed five significant findings concerning parent–child dysfunctional interaction, time spent, family socioeconomic status, parenting skills, and parental styles that impacted the emotional well-being of children, causing child development delay and delinquency.

Bahasa Abstract

Sehubungan dengan masalah pandemi saat ini, Covid-19 telah mendorong kerugian ekonomi dan ketidakstabilan yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya bagi banyak orang, terutama di kalangan keluarga berpenghasilan rendah, terutama di Asia. Keluarga dalam konteks ini melibatkan ibu tunggal yang sangat terkena dampak kehilangan pekerjaan, dan rumah tangga berpenghasilan rendah sangat mempengaruhi perkembangan kesejahteraan anak. Selain lingkungan keluarga, variabel sosio-demografis seperti status sosial ekonomi, tingkat pendidikan orang tua, dan konflik orang tua juga telah dikaitkan dengan perilaku bermasalah atau kompeten selama masa kanak-kanak. Tujuan dari tinjauan pelingkupan ini adalah untuk menentukan apa yang saat ini diketahui tentang dampak menjadi ibu tunggal pada kesejahteraan emosional anak. Tinjauan pelingkupan ini dilaporkan menurut Pedoman Item Pelaporan Pilihan untuk tinjauan sistematis dan ekstensi Meta-Analisis untuk Tinjauan Lingkup (PRISMA-ScR). Tiga database, yaitu Scopus, Web of Science, dan Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), digunakan untuk pelingkupan data. Sebanyak 341 studi diidentifikasi, tetapi hanya 15 studi yang dilakukan di benua Asia yang memenuhi syarat untuk diseleksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lima temuan signifikan mengenai interaksi disfungsional orang tua-anak, waktu yang dihabiskan, status sosial ekonomi keluarga, keterampilan pengasuhan, dan gaya orang tua yang berdampak pada kesejahteraan emosional anak, menyebabkan keterlambatan perkembangan anak dan kenakalan anak.


Allang, B. A., Awang, M. M., Ahmad, A. R., & Ahmad, A. (2019). Influenced factors of B40 students’ academic achievement. In N. Noordin, & N. Ngadnon (Eds.), Sustainable Development and Societal Wellbeing in The Current Technological Era, 171-175. https://doi.org/10.32698/GCS.0192

Allgood, S., Beckert, T., & Peterson, C. (2012). The role of father involvement in the perceived psychological well-being of young adult daughters: A retrospective study. North American Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 95-110.

Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616

Bobbitt, K. C., & Gershoff, E. T. (2016). Chaotic experiences and low-income children’s social-emotional development. Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.09.006

Bornstein, M. H., & Bradley, R. H. (2014). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Routledge.

Bradbury, B., Corak, M., Waldfogel, J., & Washbrook, E. (2015). Too Many Children Left Behind. Russell Sage Foundation.

Broussard, C. A., Joseph, A. L., & Thompson, M. (2012). Stressors and coping strategies used by single mothers living in poverty. Affilia, 27(2), 190-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109912443884

Chen, X. (2017). Parental migration, caretaking arrangement, and children’s delinquent behavior in rural China. Asian Criminology, 12(4), 281-302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-017-9250-0

Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R. J., Pierce, K. M., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Child Development, 81, 972-987. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01446.x

Dagvadorj, A., Ganbaatar, D., Balogun, O. O., Yonemoto, N., Bavuusuren, B., Takehara, K., Mori, R., & Akahira-Azuma, M. (2018). Maternal socio-demographic and psychological predictors for risk of developmental delays among young children in Mongolia. BMC Pediatrics, 18(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1017-y

Dutt, S., Roopesh, B. N., & Janardhana, N. (2021). Comparison of resilience in children of female sex workers and children of single mothers. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17(2), 122-134.

Helman, R. (2015). “A father doesn’t just have to pay the bills (and) be all manly”: Constructions of fathering among adolescents in a low-income, high-violence community in Cape Town. University of Cape Town. http://open.uct.ac.za/handle/11427/13693

International Labour Organization (ILO). (2020). Asia-Pacific employment and social outlook. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_764084.pdf

Isaacs, J., & Magnuson, K. (2011). Income and education as predictor’s of children’s school readiness. Brookings Institution.

Jean Yeung, W.-J., & Park, H. (2016). Growing up in one-parent families in Asia. Marriage & Family Review, 52(1-2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2015.1124478

Kim, S., & Holloway, S. D. (2018). Parenting and young children’s emotional self-regulation in urban Korean families. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 16(3), 305-318. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X18775759

Låftman, S. B. (2010). Family structure and children’s living conditions. A comparative study of 24 countries. Child Indicators Research, 3(1), 127–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-009-9059-1

Lee, B., Park, H. J., Han, G. H., & Chang, M. (2020). Not so depressed but unhappy mothers: Korean mothers’ mental health and infant development. Early Child Development and Care, 190(14), 2297-2308. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2019.1570925

Leung, J. T. Y. (2017). Cultural family beliefs, maternal sacrifice, and adolescent psychological competence in Chinese poor single-mother families. Social Development, 26(4), 767-782. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12239

Leung, J. T. Y., Shek, D. T. L., & Lin, L. (2017). Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families. Journal of Adolescence, 60, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.06.006

Mbulayi, S. P., & Kang’ethe, S. M. (2020). Psychosocial deficits associated with teenagers born and raised in a ‘small- house’ family setting in Cherutombo in Marondera, Zimbabwe. Social Work, 56(1), 97-108

Mohsenpour, M., Rahmati, R., & Meidani, M. (2018). Comparison of the emotional behavioral characteristics of single- parent children due to divorce with ordinary children. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 10(1), 269-275.

Nor, Z. M., Hasan, I. S. A., Omar, B., Vellymalay, S. K. N., & Omar, A. (2018). Financial well-being of single mothers in Penang: The sole breadwinner. Management & Accounting Review, 17(1), 47-61. https://doi.org/10.24191/mar.v17i1.758

Nor, Z. M. (2022). Precarious employment amongst low income single mothers in Malaysia: The implications on family wellbeing. E3S Web of Conferences. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Multidisciplinary (ICMR)- 2nd International and National Symposium on Aquatic Environment and Fisheries (INSAEF), 339. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202233906009

O’Shaughnessy, R. (2016). An exploration of the social and emotional well-being narratives of children who live with a parent with a mental health difficulty. http://hdl.handle.net/10379/5809

Oishi, A. S. (2017). Effect of mothers’ nonstandard work hours on children’s well-being in Japan. In M.-C. Tsai & W.-c. Chen (Eds.), Family, work and well-being in Asia, 151-175. Springer Science & Business Media, 151-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4313-0_8

Pannilage, U. (2017). Impact of family on children's well-being. Journal of Sociology and Social Work, 5(1), 149-158. https://doi.org/10.15640/jssw.v5n1a15

Quchani, M., Arbabi, F. H., & Smaeili, N. S. (2021). A comparison of the effectiveness of Clark and ACT parenting training on improving the emotional-behavioral problems of the child with divorced single mothers. Learning and Motivation, 76, 101759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2021.101759

Ramotuana, B. K., & Amone-P’Olak, K. (2020). Family type predicts mental health problems in young adults: A survey of students at a university in Botswana. Southern African Journal of Social Work and Social Development, 32(2). https://doi.org/10.25159/2415-5829/6823

Ratcliffe, C., & McKernan, S. (2012). Child poverty and its lasting consequences. (Working Paper No. 21). http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/32756/412659-Child-Poverty-andIts-Lasting- Consequence.PDF

Siripala, T. (2021). Japan’s struggling single mothers expose the flaws of womenomics. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2021/01/japans-struggling-single-mothers-expose-the-flaws-of-womenomics/

Song, S. M., Park, B., Lee, W. K., Park, N., & Kim, M. N. (2022). Examining the relationship between social support, parenting stress, and depression in South Korean single mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 31(5), 1232-1245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-021-02084-1

Sun, J., & Tang, Y. (2017). Maternal scaffolding strategies and early development of self-regulation in Chinese preschoolers. Early Child Development and Care, 189(9) 1525-1537. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1395874

Tamo, A. R. T. (2020). An analysis of mother stress before and during COVID-19 pandemic: The case of China. Health Care for Women International, 41(11-12), 1349-1362. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2020.1841194

Thompson, R. A. (2014). Stress and child development. The Future of Children, 24(1), 41-59. https://doi.org/10.1353/foc.2014.0004

Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O'Brien, K. K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., Moher, D., Peters, M. D., Horsley, T., Weeks, L., & Hempel, S. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(7), 467-473. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850

Trivedi, S., & Bose, K. (2020). Fatherhood and roles of father in children’s upbringing in Botswana:Fathers’ perspectives. Journal of Family Studies. 26(4), 550-563. 1-14 https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2018.1439399

Usakli, H. (2018). Behavioral tendencies of single parent students. International Journal of Science Annals. 1(1-2), 21-27. https://doi.org/10.26697/ijsa.2018.1-2.03

Vu, T. T., Huppatz, K., & Onnudottir, H. (2021). “Although I had a failed marriage, I won’t be a failure as a mother”: An analysis of Vietnamese single mothers’ involvement in their children’s schooling. Women’s Studies International Forum, 89, 102534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2021.102534

Washbrook, E., Gregg, P., & Propper, C. (2014). A decomposition analysis of the relationship between parental income and multiple child outcomes. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A-Statistics in Society, 177(4), 757-782. https://doi.org/10.1111/rssa.12074

Yob, F. S. C., Pek, L. S., & Ismail, M. R. (2022). Concept Modelling of Children's Socio-Emtional Regulation in the VUCA Environment. St Therea Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(1), 83-101. https://journal.stic.ac.th/index.php/sjhs/article/view/356



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.