Past relational demography research has demonstrated the influence of demographic dissimilarity among employees on their work engagement and attrition. Little is known about how demographic dissimilarity affects individuals’ attraction to a team in the first place. The present research focused on the attraction component of the attraction-selection-attrition model to investigate factors that contribute to team attraction and their associated underlying processes. Specifically, we identified anxiety towards potential teammates as an affective response to cultural dissimilarity, which in turn influenced performance expectations and team attraction. We also examined implicit and explicit cognitions that might shape the impact of anxiety. To this end, we tested the effects of implicit bias and perceptions of diversity culture in moderating the impact of anxiety on expected team performance and team attraction. Across two experiments, we found that anxiety mediated the effects of cultural dissimilarity on team attraction and performance expectations. Implicit bias, although not influencing the outcomes directly, moderated the link between anxiety and expected team performance. This effect was further moderated by whether diversity was valued. Specifically, when valuing diversity, individuals with heightened anxiety and lower implicit biases had lower expectations of performance from teams with dissimilar (vs. similar) members.

Bahasa Abstract

Penelitian demografi relasional masa lalu telah menunjukkan pengaruh ketidakmiripan demografis di antara karyawan pada keterlibatan dan gesekan kerja mereka. Sedikit yang diketahui tentang bagaimana perbedaan demografis memengaruhi ketertarikan individu pada tim. Penelitian ini berfokus pada komponen daya tarik model daya tarik-pilihan-gesekan untuk menyelidiki faktor-faktor yang berkontribusi pada daya tarik tim dan proses-proses mendasar yang terkait. Secara khusus, kami mengidentifikasi kecemasan terhadap rekan tim potensial sebagai respons afektif terhadap perbedaan budaya, yang pada gilirannya memengaruhi ekspektasi kinerja dan daya tarik tim. Kami juga memeriksa kognisi implisit dan eksplisit yang mungkin membentuk dampak kecemasan. Untuk tujuan ini, kami menguji efek bias implisit dan persepsi budaya keragaman dalam memoderasi dampak kecemasan pada kinerja tim yang diharapkan dan daya tarik tim. Di dua eksperimen, kami menemukan bahwa kecemasan memediasi efek perbedaan budaya pada daya tarik tim dan ekspektasi kinerja. Bias implisit, meskipun tidak mempengaruhi hasil secara langsung, memoderasi hubungan antara kecemasan dan kinerja tim yang diharapkan. Efek ini selanjutnya dimoderasi oleh apakah keragaman dihargai. Secara khusus, ketika menilai keragaman, individu dengan kecemasan yang tinggi dan bias implisit yang lebih rendah memiliki ekspektasi kinerja yang lebih rendah dari tim dengan anggota yang berbeda (vs. serupa).


Agerström, J., & Rooth, D. O. (2011). The role of automatic obesity stereotypes in real hiring discrimination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 790-805. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021594

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage.

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Addison- Wesley.

Aronson, E., & Calsmith, J. M. (1968). Experimentation in social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1-79). Addison-Wesley.

Barlow, F. K., Louis, W. R., & Terry, D. J. (2010). Minority report: Social identity, cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety predicting prejudice from one racially marginalized group towards another. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 805-818. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.651

Baumeister, R. F., & Scher, S. J. (1988). Self-defeating behavior patterns among normal individuals: Review and analysis of common self-destructive tendencies. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 3-22. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.104.1.3

Becker, W. J., Cropanzano, R., & Sanfey, A. G. (2011). Organizational neuroscience: Taking organizational theory inside the neural black box. Journal of Management, 37, 933-961. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311398955

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Blanton, H., Jaccard, J., Klick, J., Mellers, B., Mitchell, G., & Tetlock, P. E. (2009). Strong claims and weak evidence: reassessing the predictive validity of the IAT. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 567-582. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014665

Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Wheeler, S. C. (2006). Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-concepts: Consequences for information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 154-170. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.154

Brown, R., Condor, S., Mathews, A., Wade, G., & Williams, J. (1986). Explaining intergroup differentiation in an industrial organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59, 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1986.tb00230.x

Chattopadhyay, P. (1999). Beyond direct and symmetrical effects: The influence of demographic dissimilarity on organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 273-287. https://doi.org/10.2307/256919

Chattopadhyay, P., Finn, C., Ashkanasy, N. (2010). Affective responses to professional dissimilarity: A matter of status. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 808-826. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.52814603

Chattopadhyay, P., George, E., & Lawrence, S. A. (2004). Why does dissimilarity matter? Exploring self-categorization, self-enhancement and uncertainty reduction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 892– 900. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.892

Chattopadhyay, P., George, E., & Ng, C. K. (2015). Hearts and minds Integrating regulatory focus and relational demography to explain responses to dissimilarity. Organizational Psychology Review. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041386615574540

Chattopadhyay, P., George, E., & Shulman, A. D. (2008). The asymmetrical influence of sex dissimilarity in distributive vs. colocated work groups. Organization Science, 19, 581-593. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1070.0324

Chattopadhyay, P., Tluchowska, M., & George, E. (2004). Identifying the in-group: A closer look at the influence of demographic dissimilarity on employee social identity. Academy of Management Review, 29, 180-202. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2004.12736071

Cohen, G. L., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. D. (1999). The mentor’s dilemma: Providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1302-1318. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167299258011

Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 62-68. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.62

Earley, P. C., & Gibson, C. B. (2002). Multinational teams: A new perspective. Erlbaum.

Edwards, K. (1990). The interplay of affect and cognition in attitude formation and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 202-216. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.2.202

Esses, V. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). The role of emotions in determining willingness to engage in intergroup contact. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1202-1214. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672022812006

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford Univ. Press.

Forgas, J. P. (2001). Introduction: Affect and social cognition. In J. P. Forgas (ed.), Handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 1-24). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fridja, N. (1994). Varieties of affect: Emotions and episodes, moods and sentiments. In P. Ekman & R.J. Davidson (eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental question (pp. 59-67). Oxford University Press.

Goldberg, C. B. (2005). Relational demography and similarity-attraction in interview assessments and subsequent offer decisions: Are we missing something?. Group & Organization Management, 30, 597-624. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601104267661

Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4-27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197-216. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197

Haslam, S. A., & Reicher, S. (2006). Stressing the group: social identity and the unfolding dynamics of responses to stress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1037-1052. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1037

Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/ public/process2012.pdf

Hobman, E. V., Bordia, P., & Gallois, C. (2003). Consequences of feeling dissimilar from others in a work team. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 301–325. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022837207241

Homan, A. C., Van Knippenberg, D., Van Kleef, G. A., & De Dreu, C. K. (2007). Bridging faultlines by valuing diversity: diversity beliefs, information elaboration, and performance in diverse work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1189-1199. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1189

Hogg, M. A., & Hains, S. C. (1996). Intergroup relations and group solidarity: Effects of group identification and social beliefs on depersonalized attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 295 -309. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.295

Islam, M. R., & Hewstone, M. (1993). Dimensions of contact as predictors of intergroup anxiety, perceived out-group variability, and out-group attitude: An integrative model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 700-710. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167293196005

Ito, T. A., & Urland, G. R. (2003). Race and gender on the brain: Electrocortical measures of attention to the race and gender of multiply categorizable individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 616-626. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.616

Jackson, S. E., Brett, J. F., Sessa, V. I., Cooper, D. M., Julin, J. A., & Peyronnin, K. (1991). Some differences make a difference: Individual dissimilarity and group heterogeneity as correlates of recruitment, promotions, and turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 675-689. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.5.675

Kanter, R. (1993). Men and women of the corporation. Basic Books.

Katz, R. (1982). The effects of group longevity on project communication and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, 81-104. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392547

Konrad, A., & Gutek, B. (1987). Theory and research on group composition: Applications to the status of women and ethnic minorities. In S. Oskamp & S. Spacapan (Eds.), Interpersonal processes (pp. 85-121). Sage.

Leary, M. R. (1983). A brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371-375. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167283093007

Mackie, D. M., Devos, T., & Smith, E. R. (2000). Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 602–616. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.4.602

Mackie, D. M., & Hamilton, D. L. (1993). Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception. Academic Press.

Mussweiler, T., & Förster, J. (2000). The sex→ aggression link: A perception-behavior dissociation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 507-520. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.4.507

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model ofpersuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 123-205). Academic Press.

Pager, D., Western, B., & Bonikowski, B. (2009). Discrimination in a low-wage labor market: A field experiment. American Sociological Review, 74, 777-799. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400505

Plant, E. A., & Devine, P. G. (2003). The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 790-801. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203029006011

Ployhart, R. E., Weekley, J. A., & Baughman, K. (2006). The structure and function of human capital emergence: A multilevel examination of the attraction-selection-attrition model. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 661-677. https://doi.org/10.2307/20159791

Poskocil, A. (1977). Encounters between Blacks and White liberals: The collision of stereotypes. Social Forces, 55, 715-727. https://doi.org/10.2307/2577465

Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273170701341316

Riordan, G. M. (2000). Relational demography within groups: Past developments, contradictions, and new directions. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 19, pp. 131-173). JAI Press.

Rudman, L. A. (2004). Sources of implicit attitudes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 79-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00279.x

Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (2001). Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 743-762. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00239

Rydell, R. J., McConnell, A. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2008). Consequences of discrepant explicit and implicit attitudes: Cognitive dissonance and increased information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1526-1532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2008.07.006

Schalet, B. D., Cook, K. F., Choi, S. W., & Cella, D. (2014). Establishing a common metric for self-reported anxiety: Linking the MASQ, PANAS, and GAD-7 to PROMIS Anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 88-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.11.006

Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptualization and model. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 641-669. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.92.3.641

Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437-453. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00609.x

Schneider, B., Smith, D. B., Taylor, S., & Fleenor, J. (1998). Personality and organizations: A test of the homogeneity of personality hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 462-470. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.83.3.462

Stahl, G. K., Maznevski, M. L., Voigt, A., & Jonsen, K. (2010). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta-analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of International Business Studies, 41, 690-709. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.85

Stephan, W. G., & Stephan. C. W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 157-176. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01134.x

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Nelson-Hall.

Tetlock, P. E., & Mitchell, G. (2009). Implicit bias and accountability systems: What must organizations do to prevent discrimination?. Research in Organizational Behavior, 29, 3-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2009.10.002

Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. Routledge.

Tsui, A., Egan, T., & O’Reilly, C. A., III. (1992). Being different: Relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 549–579. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.1991.4976867

Turner, J. C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. In M. Hogg, P. Oakes, S. Reicher, & M. S. Wetherell (Eds.), Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. 42-67). Blackwell.

van Knippenberg, D., & Haslam, S. A. (2003). Realizing the diversity dividend: Exploring the subtle interplay between identity, ideology, and reality. In S. A. Haslam, D. van Knippenberg, M. Platow, & N. Ellemers (Eds.), Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice (pp. 61-77). Psychology Press.

van Knippenberg, D., Haslam, S. A., & Platow, M. J. (2007). Unity through diversity: Value-in-diversity beliefs, work group diversity, and group identification. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 11, 207-222. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.11.3.207

Vroom, V. R. (1966). Organizational choice: A study of pre- and post-decision processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1(2), 212-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(66)90013-4

Voci, A., & Hewstone, M. (2003). Intergroup contact and prejudice toward immigrants in Italy: The mediational role of anxiety and the moderational role of group salience. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 6, 37-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430203006001011

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Williams, K. Y., & O’Reilly, C. A. III. (1998). Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 20, pp. 77-140). JAI.

Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labor. Lexington Books.

Wilson, T. D., Aronson, E., & Carlsmith, K. (2010). The art of laboratory experimentation. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 51–81). Wiley.

Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review, 107, 101-126. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.107.1.101

Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 92- 104. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0031332

Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151-175. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.35.2.151

Ziegert, J. C., & Hanges, P. J. (2005). Employment discrimination: the role of implicit attitudes, motivation, and a climate for racial bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 553-562. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.553



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.