This study focuses on the vulnerability of general knowledge held in semantic memory. Previous studies have shown that exposure to inaccurate information can negatively affect prior knowledge. This study explores the effect of exposure to inaccurate information on semantic memory, presented in nonfiction articles. The procedure consisted of a pretest (general knowledge quiz), a manipulation stage one week later with articles containing inaccurate information for the experimental group and neutral information for the control group, and a posttest (another general knowledge quiz) given immediately after the manipulation stage. The participants were 55 Universitas Indonesia undergraduate students, divided into control and experimental groups by randomized matching based on the pretest results. An independent sample t-test showed a significant difference between the experimental group (M = −1.538, SD = 1.794) and the control group (M = 0.517, SD = 1.639), (t(53) = −4.441, p < 0.01, two-tailed), with the experimental group showing a decline in general knowledge quiz scores. These findings demonstrate that exposure to inaccurate information affects semantic memory by interfering with the retrieval process of that memory.

Bahasa Abstract

Studi ini membahas mengenai kerentanan pengetahuan umum yang tersimpan dalam memori semantik. Studi sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa paparan informasi yang tidak akurat dapat mempengaruhi pengetahuan yang dimiliki sebelumnya secara negatif. Studi ini mengeksplorasi pengaruh paparan informasi yang tidak akurat terhadap memori semantik, yang disajikan dalam bentuk artikel nonfiksi. Penelitian terdiri dari pretest (kuis pengetahuan umum), satu minggu kemudian diberikan manipulasi menggunakan artikel yang berisi informasi yang tidak akurat untuk kelompok eksperimen dan informasi netral untuk kelompok kontrol, dan posttest (kuis pengetahuan umum lainnya) yang diberikan segera setelah tahap manipulasi. Partisipan terdiri dari 55 mahasiswa S1 Universitas Indonesia, yang dibagi secara acak ke dalam kelompok kontrol dan kelompok eksperimen berdasarkan hasil pretest. Analisis independent sample t-test menunjukkan ada perbedaan skor yang signifikan antara kelompok eksperimen (M = −1.538, SD = 1.794) dan kelompok kontrol (M = 0.517, SD = 1.639), (t(53) = −4.441, p < 0.01, dua arah), kelompok eksperimen menunjukkan penurunan skor kuis pengetahuan umum. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa paparan informasi yang tidak akurat mempengaruhi memori semantik dengan mengganggu proses retrieval.


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