No one disputes that possession of language is one of the most distinctive of all human cultural attributes. The most fundamental argument has to do with the nature of language as social practice. An attempt to divorce language from its cultural context is to ignore the social circumstances which give it resonance and meaning. In the case of Sasak, language use reinforces the existing status differential and social value of language associated with the group. This perspective is employed, in this paper, to tackle the issue of Sasak language and culture.


Agar, M. 1994. Language Shock: Understanding the culture of conversation. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. Austin, P. (ed.). 2000. Working Papers in Sasak, Volume 2. Melbourne: The Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, University of Melbourne. Boas, F. 1995[1911]. “Introduction to the Handbook of American Indian Languages,” dalam Language, Culture and Society: A Book of Readings, Ben G. Blount (ed.).Waveland Press, Inc. Brown, Donald, E. 1988. Hierarchy, History, and Human Nature. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. Cederroth, S. 1981. “The Spell of the Ancestors and the Power of Mekkah: A Sasak Community on Lombok” dalam Gothenburg Studies in Social Anthropology, 3. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. Cederroth, S. 1983. “Islam and Adat: Some Recent Changes in the Social Position of Women among Sasak in Lombok,” dalam Bo Utas (ed.). Women in Islamic Societies. Studies on Asian Topics No.6. London: Curzon Press. Humanities Press. Cederroth, S. 1996. “From Ancestor Worship to Monotheism: Politics of Religion in Lombok.” dalam Temenos; 32; halaman 7-36. Cederroth, S. 1996. Return of the Birds. Revival of Wetu Telu Religion in the Village of Bayan, Lombok, Indonesia. Clynes, A. 1995. “Sasak,” dalam Darrel T. Tryon (ed.) Comparative Austronesian Dictionary: An Introduction to Austronesian Studies, Part 1, 511-520. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. (Trends in Linguistics Documentation 10). Duranti, A. 1997. Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge. Cambridge: University Press. Duranti, A. 2003. “Language as Culture in U.S. Anthropology: Three paradigms.” dalam Current Anthropology, 44, 3. halaman 323 – 335. Fishman, J. 1985. The Rise and Fall of the Ethnic Revival: Perspectives on Language and Ethnicity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Fishman, J.A. 1994. “The Truth about Language and Culture.” dalam International Journal of Sociology of Language, 109. halaman 83-96. Geertz, C. 1960. The Religion of Java. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books. Gidden, A 1993. Introduction to Sociology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Gidden, A. 1990. Human Societies. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Gidden, A. and D. Held. 1982. Classes, Power, and Conflict (eds.) UK: The Macmillan Press, Ltd. Gumperz, J.J. and D. Hymes. 1972, (eds.). Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York. Johnson, L. F. 2000. Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. London: Sage Publications, Inc. Kirmayer, L. J. 2001. “Sapir’s Vision of Culture and Personality.” dalam Psychiatry. 64, 1. halaman 23 – 31. Losonsky, M. 1999. Humboldt on Language: On the Diversity of Human Language Construction and its Influences on the Mental Development of the Human Species. Cambridge Text in the History of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Malinowski, B. 1923. “The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages,” dalam C.K. Ogden and I.A. Richards (eds.). The meaning of meaning. London: Routlage. Sapir, E. 1949. “Gradation: a study in semantics, dalam D. Mandelbaum (ed.).” dalam Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language, Culture, and Personality. Berkley: University of California Press. Searle, J. 1979. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, J. 1998. Mind, Language and Society: Phylosophy in the Real World. New York: Basic Books. Smolicz, J. J. 1999. Education and culture, dalam M. Secombe and J. Zajda (eds.). Albert Park: Nicholas Publishers. Smolicz, J. J., Secombe, M.J. and Hunter D.M. 2001. “Family Collectivism and Minority Languages as Core Values of Culture among Ethnic Groups in Australia.” dalam Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 22: 152 –72 Syahdan. 1996. Sasak – Indonesian Codeswitching. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Arizona. Wassmann, J. and Dasen, P.R. 1998. “Balinese Spatial Orientation.” dalam Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute. 4, halaman 689 – 731. White, G. M. and J. Kirkpatrick (1985). Person, Self, and Experience: Exploring Pacific Ethnopsychologies. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Whorf, B. L. 1940. “Science and Linguistics.” dalam Technology Review 42 (6), halaman 229 – 31. Whorf, B.L. 1956. Language, Thought, and Reality, Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. J.B. Carroll. (Editor) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Written from 1927 to 1941).



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.