- Formatting Requirements
- Types of Articles
- Article Structure
- Abstract, Keywords, Acknowledgements, Headings, Table and Figures, Permissions
- Submission Preparation Checklist
- Additional Recommendations
This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to Psychological Research on Urban Society:PRoUSt Manuscript Template
- Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.)
- Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
- Write your article in English (unless the journal expressly permits non-English submissions).
- Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, RTF, or PDF files are accepted).
- Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
- All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
- Single space your text.
- Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
- Main Body—12 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
- Footnotes—10 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
- If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
- Copyedit your manuscript.
- When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.
Types of Articles
Original Research Papers
present new empirical results contributing to theoretical, methodological, and/or applied advances (with a maximum length of 8,000 words, including references but excluding tables and figures). Articles longer than 8,000 words will be accepted on an occasional basis.
similar to original articles but shorter in nature (with a maximum length of 3,000 words, including references but excluding tables and figures).
summarize and integrate a clearly defined literature and make theoretical advances in this area (with a maximum length of 10,000 words, including references but excluding tables and figures). Articles longer than 10,000 words will be accepted on an occasional basis. Policy reviews fall in this category.
present good descriptions of experiences from particular contexts that allow lessons to be learned. It need not be a successful case, lessons can be learnt from failure. An article containing a case study should address the following questions: what are the context variables that made it a success or a failure; how can we transfer lessons from this case elsewhere. Case studies should be under 6,000 words, including references but excluding tables and figures.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, with extended theories that lay the foundation for further work.
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Abstract, Keywords, Acknowledgements, Headings, Table and Figures, Permissions
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Abstracts must be 200 words or fewer.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Appropriate headings should be used to help organize the manuscript and should follow APA Style Manual guidelines. Typical headings for quantitative and qualitative research articles include review of literature, method, results, discussion, and references. For theoretical manuscripts, authors are encouraged to use headings that clarify the flow of the manuscript as well as assist the reader in understanding the content of the paper. Authors are encouraged to use up to two (2) additional levels of headings in accordance with APA Style Manual guidelines.
Tables and figures
Tables should be titled and numbered at the top of the table. They should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. Tables should be clear, concise, and able to stand alone. Complete headings and footnotes should be included to clarify entries. Figures should be numbered consecutively, at the bottom of the figure, with a short and concise description. Fonts used in any table or figure should be compatible with that used in the text. All tables and figures should be referred to in the text with a notation made in the manuscript indicating approximately where each should be located. Illustrations should be of professional quality and supplied in EPS, tiff, or PDF formats.
The author(s) is responsible for providing copies of written permission for lengthy quotations or reprinted or adapted tables or figures. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to check with the publisher or copyright owner regarding specific requirements for permission to adapt or quote from copyrighted material. See the APA Style Manual for guidelines.
All citations and references must be complete and accurate on submission and should follow the APA Style Manual. Papers cannot be reviewed if they have references that are found to be incomplete or inaccurate.
Submission Preparation ChecklistA PDF version of the author guidelines can be accessed here
Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification
Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.
Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.
Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).
All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin—except where indented). Where possible, it should also be right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin). "Where possible" refers to the quality of the justification. For example, LaTeX and TeX do an excellent job of justifying text. Word does a reasonable job. But some word processors do a lousy job (e.g., they achieve right justification by inserting too much white space within and between words). We prefer flush right margins. However, it is better to have jagged right margins than to have flush right margins with awkward intra- and inter-word spacing. Make your decision on whichever looks best.
Language & Grammar
All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.
Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well.
Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length.
Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.
Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)
Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.
Except, possibly, where special symbols are needed, use Times or the closest comparable font available. If you desire a second font, for instance for headings, use a sans serif font (e.g., Arial or Computer Modern Sans Serif).
The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.
Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.
Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts or by using small caps. Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size. There should be space above and below headings.
The font for the main body of text must be black and, if at all possible, in Times or closest comparable font available.
Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.
Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times or closest comparable font available, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin), unless this creates awkward spacing.
Tables and Figures
To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.
Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.
Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.
Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.
Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.
It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break—not a page break—and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page if possible. References should have margins that are both left and right- justified. You may choose not to right-justify the margin of one or more references if the spacing looks too awkward. Each reference should give the last names of all the authors, their first names or first initials, and, optionally, their middle initials. The hierarchy for ordering the references is:
- Last name of first author
- First name of first author
- Last name of second author (if any). Co-authored work is listed after solo-authored work by the same first author (e.g., Edlin, Aaron S. would precede Edlin, Aaron S. and Stefan Reichelstein).
- First name of second author
- Publication date
- Order cited in text
The information to be given with each citation in the references is as follows:
Articles in traditional journals:
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of article, name of journal, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), volume number, page numbers.
Optional (but desirable): issue number and month/season of publication. For forthcoming (in press) articles, put expected year of publication and substitute "forthcoming" for the volume and page numbers.
Optional(but desirable): A hyperlink to the article.
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), publisher, publisher's address, edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."
Chapters in collections or anthologies:
Required: Name(s) of author(s) of chapter, name(s) of editor(s) of book, title of chapter, title of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), publisher, publisher's address, and edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming."
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of working paper, year (or "n.d." if no date), location (e.g., "Department of Economics Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley" or "Author's web site: http://www.someurl.edu/author." If the working paper is part of series, then the series name and the number of the working paper within the series must also be given.
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of work, year (or "n.d." if no date), and information about how the reader could obtain a copy.
Within the references section, the citations can be formatted as you like, provided (i) the formatting is consistent and (ii) each citation begins with the last name of the first author. That is, the following would all be acceptable:
Smith, Adam (1776) The Wealth of Nations, . . .
Smith, A., The Wealth of Nations, . . . , 1776.
Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations, 1776, . . .
Use hanging indents for citations (i.e., the first line of the citation should be flush with the left margin and all other lines should be indented from the left margin by a set amount). Citations should be single-spaced with extra space between citations.
When works by the same author are listed in a row, use — instead of writing the name again. Hence, one might have
Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations, . . .
—: The Theory of Moral Sentiments, . . .
Similarly, instead of repeating two names use
"— and —."
Edlin, A. and S. Reichelstein (1995) . . . — and — (1996) . . .
Within the text of your manuscript, use the author-date method of citation. For instance,
"As noted by Smith (1776)."
When there are two authors, use both last names. For instance,
"Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) claim . . . "
If there are three or more authors give the last name of the first author and append et al. For instance, a 1987 work by Abel, Baker, and Charley, would be cited as
"Abel et al. (1987)."
If two or more cited works share the same authors and dates, use "a," "b," and so on to distinguish among them. For instance,
"Jones (1994b) provides a more general analysis of the model introduced in Example 3 of Jones (1994a)."
After the first cite in the text using the author-date method, subsequent cites can use just the last names if that would be unambiguous. For example, Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) can be followed by just Edlin and Reichelstein provided no other Edlin & Reichelstein article is referenced; if one is, then the date must always be attached.
When citations appear within parentheses, use commas—rather than parentheses or brackets—to separate the date from the surrounding text. For instance,
" ...(see Smith, 1776, for an early discussion of this)."