Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of rotary EndoArt Ni-Ti Gold Pedo Kit and K-files in shaping ability, canal transportation, centering ability and instrumentation time in primary molars.

Methods: For the study total of 30 extracted primary molars root with minimum 7mm root length were selected. Shaping of root canals in primary molars were done using the two systems, and CBCT and specialized software were used for scanning and analysis of pre-operative and post-operative to evaluate the groups for their shaping properties, apical transportation and preparation time in primary root canals.

Results: No differences were found in canal transportation measures and instrumentation time between the two groups (p>0.05). The EndoArt group removed more dentin compared to K-file in all sides of the root curvature. The statistical differences were significant for coronal and middle third of the root (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, rotary EndoArt Ni-Ti Gold Pedo Kit provided more conical canals than K-files in primary teeth.


  1. McDonald RE, Avery DR DJ. Dentistry for the child and adolescent. 7th ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby Co; 2000.
  2. Fuks AB, Guelmann M, Kupietzky A. Current developments in pulp therapy for primary teeth. Endod Top. 2010;23:50–72.
  3. Sharma P, Kurthukoti AJ, Swamy DF, Shashidara R , Swamy EB. Computed tomographic morphometry of the internal anatomy of mandibular second primary molars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2015;8(3):202–7.
  4. Fumes AC, Sousa-Neto MD, Leoni GB, Versiani MA, da Silva LAB, da Silva RAB, et al. Root canal morphology of primary molars: a micro-computed tomography study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014;15:317–26.
  5. Kandaswamy D, Venkateshbabu N, Porkodi I, Pradeep G. Canal-centering ability: an endodontic challenge. J Conserv Dent. 2009;12(1):3–9.
  6. Silva LAB, Leonardo MR, Nelson-Filho P, Tanomaru JMG. Comparison of rotary and manual instrumentation techniques on cleaning capacity and instrumentation time in deciduous molars. J Dent Child. 2004;71:45–7.
  7. Barr ES, Kleier DJ, Barr N V. Use of nickel-titanium rotary files for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2000;22(1):77–8.
  8. Manchanda S, Sardana D, Yiu CKY. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials comparing rotary canal instrumentation techniques with manual instrumentation techniques in primary teeth. Int Endod J. 2020;5(3);333-53.
  9. Drukteinis S BI. A scanning electron microscopic study of debris and smear layer remaining following use of AET instruments and K-flexofiles. Stomatologija. 2006;8:70–5.
  10. Panchal V, Jeevanandan G, Subramanian EMG. Comparison of instrumentation time and obturation quality between hand K-file, H-files, and rotary Kedo-S in root canal treatment of primary teeth: A randomized controlled trial. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2019;37(1):75.
  11. Priyadarshini P, Jeevanandan G, Govindaraju L, Subramanian EMG. Clinical evaluation of instrumentation time and quality of obturation using paediatric hand and rotary file systems with conventional hand K-files for pulpectomy in primary mandibular molars: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2020;1–9.
  12. EndoArt Ni-Ti Gold Pedo Kit. http://www. incidental.com.tr/uploads/urun/pdf/endoart-action-gold-rotary-files1583257168.pdf.
  13. Musale PK, Mujawar SAV. Evaluation of the efficacy of rotary vs. hand files in root canal preparation of primary teeth in vitro using CBCT. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014;15(2):113–20
  14. Gambill JM, Alder M del RC. Comparison of nickel-titanium and stainless steel hand-file instrumentation using computed tomography. J Endod. 1996;22:369–75.
  15. Hasheminia SM, Farhad A, Sheikhi M, Soltani P, Hendi SS, Ahmadi M. Cone-beam computed tomographic analysis of canal transportation and centering ability of single-file systems. J Endod. 2018;44:1788–791.
  16. Hashem AAR, Ghoneim AG, Lutfy RA, Foda MY, Omar GAF. Geometric analysis of root canals prepared by four rotary NiTi shaping systems. J Endod. 2012;38(7):996–1000.
  17. Bernardes RA, Rocha EA, Duarte MAH, Vivan RR, Gomes De Moraes I, Bramante AS, et al. Root canal area increase promoted by the EndoSequence and ProTaper systems: comparison by computed tomography. J Endod. 2010;36(7):1179–182.
  18. Elsherief SM, Zayet MK, Hamouda IM. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of curved root canals after mechanical preparation with three nickel-titanium rotary instruments. J Biomed Res. 2013;27(4):326–33.
  19. Ahmed HMA. Anatomical challenges, electronic working length determination and current developments in root canal preparation of primary molar teeth. Int Endod J. 2013;46:1011–22.
  20. Peters OA. Current challenges and concepts in the preparation of root canal systems: a review. J Endod. 2004; 30(8):559–67.
  21. Esentürk G, Akkas E, Cubukcu E, Nagas E, Uyanik O, Cehreli ZC. A micro-computed tomographic assessment of root canal preparation with conventional and different rotary files in primary teeth and young permanent teeth. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;30:202–8.
  22. Radhika E, Reddy ER, Rani ST, Kumar LV, Manjula M, Mohan TA. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation of hand nickel-titanium K-files and rotary system in primary teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2017;39:319–23.
  23. Kaya E, Elbay M, Yiğit D. Evaluation of the self-adjusting file system (SAF) for the instrumentation of primary molar root canals: a micro-computed tomog raphic st udy. Eu r J Paediat r Dent. 2017;18:105–10.
  24. Selvakumar H, Kavitha S, Thomas E, Anadhan V, Vijayakumar R. Computed tomographic evaluation of K3 rotary and stainless steel K file instrumentation in primary teeth. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2016;10:ZC05–08.
  25. Kummer TR, Calvo MC, Cordeiro MMR, de Sousa Vieira R, de Carvalho Rocha MJ. Ex vivo study of manual and rotary instrumentation techniques in human primary teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2008;105:84–92.
  26. Poornima P, Disha P, Nagaveni NB, Roopa KB, Bharath KP, Neena IE. Volumetric analysis of hand and rotary root canal instrumentation and filling in primary teeth using Spiral Computed Tomography - an invitro study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2016;26:193–8.
  27. Rosa FM, Modesto A F-JI. Manual and rotary instru- mentation techniques for root canal preparation in primary molar. Dentistry. 2014;2:1– 5.
  28. Pinheiro SL, Araujo G, Bincelli I, Cunha R, Bueno C. Evaluation of cleaning capacity and instrumentation time of manual, hybrid and rotary instrumentation techniques in primary molars. Int Endod J. 2012;45:379–85.
  29. Nagaratna PJ, Shashikiran ND, Subbareddy VV. In vitro comparison of NiTi rotary instruments and stainless steel hand instruments in root canal preparations of primary and permanent molar. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006;24:186–91.
  30. Govindaraju L, Jeevanandan G, Subramanian EMG. Comparison of quality of obturation and instrumentation time using hand files and two rotary file systems in primary molars: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Eur J Dent. 2017;11:376–9.
  31. Madan N, Rathnam A, Shigli AL, Indushekar KR. K-file vs ProFiles in cleaning capacity and instrumentation time in primary molar root canals: An in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2011;29(1):2–6.
  32. Yared GM, Bou Dagher FE, Machtou P. Influence of rotational speed, torque and operator’s proficiency on ProFile failures. Int Endod J. 2001;34(1):47–53.
  33. Deshpande AN, Joshi NH, Naik KS. In vitro comparative evaluation of cleaning efficacy and volumetric filling in primary molars: Cone beam computed tomography evaluation. Contemp Clin Dent. 2017;8(1):33.
  34. Shaikh SM, Goswami M. Evaluation of the effect of different root canal preparation techniques in primary teeth using



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.