Luxation cases reportedly occur more frequently in men than in women, and the frequency decreases with increasing age. It is important to know the characteristics of luxation injuries to take preventive measures and early treatments. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate luxation trauma cases in the Turkish population in the West Mediterranean region between 1999 and 2017. Methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis of records of patients with luxation traumas was performed. Data regarding age groups, gender, trauma types, etiologic factors, trauma locations, number of affected teeth, trauma types with/without crown fracture, and time elapsed from trauma onset until clinic visit were determined. Acquired data were tabulated as numbers and percentages. Results: A total of 1597 teeth, from 885 patients, exposed to luxation trauma were included. The number of injured teeth per child was 1.8, and single tooth trauma was the most common type. The number of trauma patient was higher in the 0–5 age group, and the number of cases was higher in the primary teeth of the 0–3 age group and in the permanent teeth of the 8–12 age group. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly affected teeth, and the most common cause was falls. The luxation types most frequently presenting with crown fracture were lateral luxation in the primary teeth (60%) and subluxation in the permanent teeth (33.9%). The proportion of patients with avulsion was the lowest among those visiting the clinic within 2 days of trauma. Conclusion: This study revealed that almost half of the trauma patients have a history of luxation trauma. Educational programs for the community regarding causes and prevention of luxation traumas should be continued.


Andreasen FM, Andreasen JO. Diagnosis of luxation injuries: the importance of standardized clinical, radiographic and photographic techniques in clinical investigations. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1985;1(5):160–9.

Crona-Larsson G, Norén JG. Luxation injuries to permanent teeth–a retrospective study of etiological factors. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1989;5(4):176–9.

Skaare AB, Jacobsen I. Etiological factors related to dental injuries in Norwegians aged 7–18 years. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19(6):304–8.

Sandalli N, Cildir S, Guler N. Clinical investigation of traumatic injuries in Yeditepe University, Turkey during the last 3 years. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(4):188–94.

Andreasen JO, Bakland LK, Matras RC, Andreasen FM. Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 1. An epidemiological study of 216 intruded permanent teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2006;22(2):83–9.

Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM, Andersson L. Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 4th edition, 2007.

Schatz JP, Hakeberg M, Ostini E, Kiliaridis S. Prevalence of traumatic injuries to permanent dentition and its association with overjet in a Swiss child population. Dent Traumatol. 2013;29(2):110– 14.

Toprak ME, Tuna EB, Seymen F, Gençay K. Traumatic dental injuries in Turkish children, Istanbul. Dent Traumatol. 2014;30(4):280–4.

Atabek D, Alaçam A, Aydintug I, Konakoglu G. A retrospective study of traumatic dental injuries. Dent Traumatol. 2014;30(2):154–61.

Kargül B, Çağlar E , Tanboğa I. D ental t rauma Turkish children, Istanbul. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19(2):72–5.

Kırzıoglu Z, Erturk S, Karayılmaz H. Traumatic injuries of the permanent incisors in children in southern Turkey: a retrospective study. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(1):20–5.

Kirzioğlu Z, Karayilmaz H, Ertürk MS, Köseler Sentut T. Epidemiology of traumatised primary teeth in the west-Mediterranean region of Turkey. Int Dent J. 2005;55(5):329–33.

Sari ME, Ozmen B, Koyuturk AE, Tokay U, Kasap P, Guler D. A retrospective evaluation of traumatic dental injury in children who applied to the dental hospital, Turkey. Niger J Clin Pract. 2014;17(5):644–8.

Altay N, Güngör HC. A retrospective study of dento-alveolar injuries of children in Ankara, Turkey. Dent Traumatol. 2001;17(5):201–4.

Saroğlu I, Sönmez H. The prevalence of traumatic injuries treated in the pedodontic clinic of Ankara University, Turkey, during18 months. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(6):299–303.

Unal M, Oznurhan F, Kapdan A, Aksoy S, Dürer A. Traumatic dental injuries in children. Experience of a hospital in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. Eur J Pediatr Dent. 2014;15(1):17–22.

Assunção LR, Ferelle A, Iwakura ML, Nascimento LS, Cunha RF. Luxation injuries in primary teeth: a retrospective study in children assisted at an emergency service. Braz Oral Res. 2011;25(2):150– 6.

Cho SY. Dental luxation and avulsion injuries in Hong Kong primary school children. H. K Med J. 2015;21(4):339–44.

Gupta M. Intrusive luxation in primary teeth - Review of literature and report of a case. Saudi Dent J. 2011;23(4):167–76.

Lombardi S, Sheller B, Williams BJ. Diagnosis and treatment of dental trauma in a children’s hospital. Pediatr Dent. 1998;20(2):112–20.

Díaz JA, Bustos L, Brandt AC, Fernández BE. Dental injuries among children and adolescents aged 1–15 years attending to public hospital in Temuco, Chile. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26(3):254– 61.

Škaričić J, Vuletić M, Hrvatin S, Jeličić J, Čuković- Bagić I, Jurić H. Prevalence, type and etiology of dental and soft tissue ınjuries in children in Croatia. Acta Clin Croat. 2016;55(2):209–16.

Choi SC, Park JH, Pae A, Kim JR. Retrospective study on traumatic dental injuries in preschool children at Kyung Hee Dental Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26(1):70–5.

Marchiori EC, Santos SE, Asprino L, de Moraes M, Moreira RW. Occurrence of dental avulsion and associated injuries in patients with facial trauma over a 9-year period. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;17(2):119–26.

Mesquita GC, Soares PBF, Moura CCG, Roscoe MG, Paiva SM, Soares CJ. A 12-year retrospective study of avulsion cases in a public Brazilian dental trauma service. Braz Dent J. 2017;28(6):749–56.

Neto JJSM, Gondim JO, de Carvalho FM, Giro EM. Longitudinal clinical and radiographic evaluation of severely intruded permanent incisors in a pediatric population. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25(5):510–4.

Karayilmaz H, Kirzioglu Z, Erken Gungor O. Aetiology, treatment patterns and long-term outcomes of tooth avulsion in children and adolescents. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29(2):464–8.

Soares TRC, Silva LP, Salazar SLA, Luiz RR, Risso PA, Maia LC. Profile of intrusive luxation and healing complications in deciduous and permanent teeth–a retrospective study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2018;76(8):567–71.

Kramer PF, Zembruski C, Ferreira SH, Feldens CA. Traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19(6):299–303.

Carvalho V, Jacomo DR, Campos V. Frequency of intrusive luxation in deciduous teeth and its effects. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26(4):304–7.

Lauridsen E, Hermann NV, Gerds TA, Kreiborg S, Andreasen JO. Pattern of traumatic dental injuries in the permanent dentition among children, adolescents, and adults. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28(5):358–63.

Colak I, Markovic D, Petrovic B, Peric T, Milenkovic A. A retrospective study of intrusive injuries in primary dentition. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25(6):605–10.

Gauba K, Goyal A, Bhatia SK. Int rusive dental ınjuries in children: manifestations and management. J Postgrad Edu Res. 2014;48:53–62.

Ozen B, Cakmak T, Altun C, Bagis B, Senel FC, Baltacioglu E, et al. Prevalence of dental trauma among chıldren age 2–15 years ın the Eastern black sea regıon of Turkey. JIDMR. 2010;3:126–32.

Altun C, Ozen B, Esenlik E, Guven G, Gürbüz T, Acikel C, et al. Traumatic injuries to permanent teeth in Turkish children, Ankara. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25(3):309–13.

Gulinelli JL, Saito CT, Garcia-Júnior IR, Panzarini SR, Poi WR, Sonoda CK, et al. Occurrence of tooth injuries in patients treated in hospital environment in the region of Araçatuba, Brazil during a 6-year period. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24(6):640–4.

Bendo CB, Paiva SM, Oliveira AC, Goursand D, Torres CS, Pordeus IA, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent. 2010;70(4):313–8.

Dua R, Sharma S. Prevalence, causes, and correlates of traumatic dental injuries among seven-to-twelve-year-old school children in Dera Bassi. Contemp Clin Dent. 2012;3(1):38–41.

Noori AJ, Al-Obaidi WA. Traumatic dental injuries among primary school children in Sulaimani city, Iraq. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25(4):442–6.

Pedrini D, Panzarini SR, Tiveron ARF, Abreu VM, Sonoda CK, Poi WR, et al. Evaluation of cases of concussion and subluxation in the permanent dentition: a retrospective study. J Appl Oral Sci. 2018;26:e20170287.

Rocha Lima TF, Nagata JY, de Souza-Filho FJ, de Jesus Soares A. Post-traumatic complications of severe luxations and replanted teeth. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2015;16(1):13–9.

Eyuboglu O, Yilmaz Y, Zehir C, Sahin H. A 6-year investigation into types of dental trauma treated in a paediatric dentistry clinic in Eastern Anatolia region, Turkey. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25(1):110–4.

Gondim JO, Moreira Neto JJ. Evaluation of intruded primary incisors. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(3):131–3.

Rodríguez JG. Traumatic anterior dental injuries in Cuban preschool children. Dent Traumatol. 2007;23(4):241–2.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.