Common Heritage of Mankind (CHM) is a principle in which all entities can manage the natural resources that exist in the world and must share the benefits of their exploitation with other entities for the common good. However, the principle of CHM has not been structurally and legally regulated in space. The enthusiasm about ‘infinite natural wealth’ that space and seabed mining can produce, particularly in developing countries, means that they can benefit from the activities carried out in order for their regional and mineral resources to be declared as the heritage of mankind. The hypothesis obtained from this research will explore the principles of rules for the management of exploration and exploitation in general of natural resources by international enterprise within the CHM regime and analyze the need to establish management enterprise and international authorities/ organization to manage natural resource exploitation activities as a common heritage. Finding and formulating the urgency of the formation of a business entity and finding a suitable formulation of principles for managing the results of natural resource exploitation activities with international organizations in CHM for international enterprise as business actors who are obliged to have ideas about the mechanisms and procedures in managing Space that has brought out for the exploration and exploitation of the common heritage of mankind. The idea in the International Statute could be the basis for adding a new norm in international law.


Journals and Periodicals

Belkin, Igor M., Per S. Andersson, and Jörgen Langhof. “On the Discovery of Fer- romanganese Nodules in the World Ocean.” Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceano- graphic Research Papers 175, (2021): 103589. DOI: 10.1016/J.DSR.2021.103589.

Buttigieg, Jean. “Arvid Pardo – a Diplomat with a Mission.” Symposia Melitensia 12, no. 12 (2016): 13–28.

Hofmann, Mahulena, and Federico Bergamasco. “Space Resources Activities from the Perspective of Sustainability: Legal Aspects.” Global Sustainability 3, (2020): e4. DOI: 10.1017/SUS.2019.27.

Ilham, Putuhena. “Setting The Urgency Of Exploration And Exploitation Of Mining In The International Sea Bed Area.” Marine Policy 8, no. 10 (2019): 167-183.

Le, Jennifer T., Lisa A. Levin, and Richard T. Carson. “Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Environmental Management of Deep-Seabed Mining.” Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 137 (2017): 486–503. DOI: 10.1016/J.DSR2.2016.08.007.

Loijens, Tasya Ester. “Implikasi Yuridis Pemberlakuan Wacana Earth to Earth Trans- portation Oleh SpaceX [Juridical Impacts in SpaceX Earth to Earth Transportation Plan].” Lex Generalis 1, no. 8 (2020): 48–58. DOI: 10.56370/JHLG.V1I8.221.

Merdekawati, Agustina, Marsudi Triatmodjo, Irkham Afnan, Trisandi Hasibuan, Vivin Purnamawati, and Nahda Anisa Rahma. “Arti Penting Common Heritage Of Mankind Dalam Rezim Pengaturan Area Dan Perkembangannya [The Impor- tance of the Common Heritage of Mankind Principle in the Regulation of the Area Regime and Its Development].” Law Review 21, no. 3 (2022): 279–308. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105191.

Miller, Kathryn A., Kirsten F. Thompson, Paul Johnston, and David Santillo. “An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Envi- ronmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps.” Frontiers in Marine Science 4, (2018): 312755. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00418.

Mirzaee, Siavash. “The Conceptual Foundations of the Common Heritage of Man- kind,” Eurasian Law Journal, no.10 (2017): 50-54.

Moltz, James Clay. “The Changing Dynamics of Twenty-First-Century Space Power.” Journal of Strategic Security 12, no. 1 (2019): 15–43. https://doi. org/10.5038/1944-0472.12.1.1729.

Musyaffa, Nadhif Fadhlan, Arie Kusuma Paksi, and Lalu Radi Myarta. “Measuring The Dominant Paradigma in United Nations Convention on The Law Of The Sea.” Lampung Journal of International Law 4, no. 2 (2022): 91–102. https://doi. org/10.25041/LAJIL.V4I2.2595.

Nugraha, Taufik Rachmat. “Program Artemis: Tantangan Hukum Ruang Angkasa di Era Baru [Artemis Program: New Challenges for Space Law].” Veritas et Justitia 8, no. 1 (2022): 76–108. https://doi.org/10.25123/VEJ.V8I1.4388.

Pinem, Gelorya Br. “Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam Terhadap Penangkapan Ikan Oleh Negara Di Laut Lepas Menurut Hukum Internasional [Natural Resources Management on Fishing Activity on The High Seas].” Lex Et Societatis 7, no. 5 (2019): 114-126. https://doi.org/10.35796/LES.V7I5.24730.

Schrijver, Nico. “Managing the Global Commons: Common Good or Common Sink?” Third World Quarterly 37, no. 7 (2016): 1252–1267. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143 6597.2016.1154441.

Su, Jinyuan. “Legality of Unilateral Exploitation of Space Resources Under Interna- tional Law.” International & Comparative Law Quarterly 66, no. 4 (2017): 991– 1008. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589317000367.

Wahyudi, Dedi. “Implementasi Prinsip Common Heritage Of Mankind Oleh Interna- tional Seabed Authority Menurut UNCLOS 1982 [Implementation of Common Heritage of Mankind Principle by International Seabed Authority].” Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Hukum 1, no. 3 (November 2021): 1-7.

Wang, Chuanliang, and Yen Chiang Chang. “A New Interpretation of the Common Heritage of Mankind in the Context of the International Law of the Sea.” Ocean and Coastal Management 191, no. 179 (2020): 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oce- coaman.2020.105191.

Yun, Zhao. “A Multilateral Regime for Space Resource Exploration and Utilization.” Indonesian Journal of International Law 17, no. 3 (2020): 327–340. https://doi. org/10.17304/ijil.vol17.3.789.

Books and Book Chapters

Kurnia, Ida. Aspek Nasional dan Internasional Pemanfaatan Surplus Perikanan di Zona Ekonomi Ekslusif Indonesia [National and International Aspects on Fisher- ies Surplus on Indonesia EEZ]. Jakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2017.

Narwati, Enny, and Asih Indah Camelia, “Kedaulatan Negara Atas Wilayah Laut [State Sovereignty at Sea].” in Dinamika Hukum Agraria Indonesia : Dalam Rangka Memperingati 70 Tahun Guru Kami, Prof. Dr.Sri Hajati, S.H.,M.S. 205- 222. Jakarta: Kencana, 2020.

Meyer, Tirza. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and the Law of the Sea. Brill Publisher, 2022.

Legal Documents

United Nations Convention on The Law of The Sea, opened for signature 10 Decem- ber 1982, 1833 UNTS 397 (entered into forced 16 November 1994).

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies [Outer Space Treaty], opened for signature 27 January 1967, 610 UNTS 205 (entered into force 10 October 1967).

General Assembly Resolution 51/122, Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, A/ RES/51/122 (13 December 1996).

Web Sources

International Seabed Authority. “Exploration Contracts.” Accessed 2 January 2023, https://www.isa.org.jm/deep-seabed-minerals-contractors.

International Seabed Authority. “The Mining Code.” Accessed 29 December 2022. https://www.isa.org.jm/mining-code.


Shenoy, Amritha. Freedom of the Seas, International Law and the South China Sea Dispute, Center for International Legal Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, 2020.