Article Title

Safeguarding Sovereignty: Indonesia's Solution to the Raw Materials Case in WTO


Indonesia’s export restriction on raw materials was based upon Law No. 4 of 2009 on Mineral and Coal Mining as amended with Law No. 3 of 2020. January 1st of 2020 marks nickel to be the first mineral to be affected by the raw mineral export ban policy. This measure has sparked a controversy in the international community, as the European Union deemed that this measure is against the principles of the World Trade Organization of nonrestrictive trade policies. This phenomenon was brought to the Dispute Settlement Body of the WTO as DS592 – Indonesia Measures Relating to Raw Materials. Although the Indonesian government has lost the case against the European Union, the Indonesian government is adamant on proceeding with this measure to further develop the downstream industry of raw minerals in Indonesia. Since then, Indonesia has filed the appeal for the panel report of the DS592 case and shows no sign of stopping the nationwide export ban on raw minerals, with bauxite, copper, and tin on the horizon. Therefore, the invocation of Article XXI GATT could be used as a strategy to avoid scrutiny from the international community, by invoking a national security exception to implement measures inconsistent to the principles of the WTO. Thus, the Indonesian government is able to protect and secure their nation’s fundamental principal as a sovereign nation with control over its raw materials.

Bahasa Abstract

Pembatasan ekspor Indonesia untuk bahan mentah didasarkan pada Undang-Undang Nomor 4 Tahun 2009 tentang Pertambangan Mineral dan Batubara sebagaimana telah diubah dengan Undang-Undang Nomor 3 Tahun 2020. Tanggal 1 Januari 2020 menandai nikel menjadi mineral pertama yang terkena larangan ekspor mineral mentah. kebijakan. Tindakan ini telah memicu kontroversi di komunitas internasional, karena Uni Eropa menganggap bahwa tindakan ini bertentangan dengan prinsip-prinsip kebijakan perdagangan non restriktif Organisasi Perdagangan Dunia. Fenomena ini dibawa ke Dispute Settlement Body WTO sebagai DS592 – Indonesia Measures Relating to Raw Materials. Meski pemerintah Indonesia kalah melawan Uni Eropa, namun pemerintah Indonesia tetap melanjutkan langkah tersebut untuk lebih mengembangkan industri hilir mineral mentah di Indonesia. Sejak itu, Indonesia telah mengajukan banding atas laporan panel kasus DS592 dan tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda akan menghentikan larangan ekspor mineral mentah nasional, dengan bauksit, tembaga, dan timah di dunia. Oleh karena itu, penggunaan Pasal XXI GATT dapat digunakan sebagai strategi untuk menghindari pengawasan dari komunitas internasional, dengan menggunakan pengecualian keamanan nasional untuk menerapkan langkah-langkah yang tidak sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip WTO. Dengan demikian, pemerintah Indonesia mampu melindungi dan mengamankan prinsip dasar negaranya sebagai negara yang berdaulat dengan menguasai bahan bakunya.


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