The political transition from the New Order era to Reform Era has initiated questions to the transitional government about transitional justice initiatives. This chapter discusses the theoretical perspectives on transitional justice that have been developed by many scholars in their publications. Besides the theoretical perspectives about transitional justice, this chapter also discusses transitional justice elements, the forms, and the institution of justice in transitional regimes. The discussion in this chapter is important as a measurement of the transitional government initiatives to reach political stability and reconciling with the past. The explanation about the forms and the element of justice then be discussed comprehensively in part about the government initiatives, in addition to reconciling with the past violation and creating “Victims-Centred Transitional Justice”. This study specifically raises aspiration or expectation from the victims on the transitional justice policy made by the transitional government. The room for victims to speaks their version comparing to many versions on the incident will be narrated in the specific part on the incidents (Tanjung Priok Incident 1984) as well as reminiscing the victims’ experiences with the violations of human rights when the incident occurred. After discussing the incident, then next part shall narrate about the government policy in settling past severe violation of human rights and the effort of victim’s supporters in the House of Representatives before promulgating the Law on Human Rights Court. The later part is very important to be discussed in formulating a conclusion to half-hearted transitional justice in Indonesia.


Journal articles

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Blustein, Jeffrey. “Human Rights and the Internationalization of Memory.” Journal of Social Philosophy 43, no. 1 (2012): 19-32.

Bickford, Louis. “Human Rights Archives and Research in Historical Memory: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay”, Latin American Research Review 35, no. 2, (2000): 160

Carothers, Thomas. “The End of The Transition Paradigm.” Journal of democracy 13, no. 1 (2002): 5-21.

Cole, Elizabeth A. “Apology, Forgiveness, and Moral Repair.” Ethics & International Affairs 22, no. 4, (2008): 421-428.

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Diamond, Larry Jay. “Lessons from Iraq.” Journal of Democracy 16, no. 1, (2005): 9-23.

Eldridge, Philip. “Emerging roles of national human rights institutions in Southeast Asia.” Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change 14, no. 3 (2002): 209-226.

Fletcher, L.E. and H.M. Weinstein, “Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation”, Human Rights Quarterly 24, no. 3 (2002): 573-639. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/hrq/summary/ v024/24.3fletcher.html, accessed 20 September 2022.

Gray, David C. “An Excuse-Centered Approach to Transitional Justice.” Fordham Law Review 74, (2006): 2621-2695.

Hadiprayitno, I.I. “Defensive Enforcement: Human Rights in Indonesia.” Human Rights Review 11, (2010): 373–399.

Harper, Erica. “Delivering Justice in The Wake of Mass Violence: New Approaches to Transitional Justice.” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 10, no.2, (2005): 149-185.

Hayner, Priscilla B. “Fifteen Truth Commission (1974-1993): A Comparative Study.” Human Rights Quarterly 16, no. 4 (1994): 597-655.

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Kouvo, Sari, and Dallas Mazoori. “Reconciliation, Justice and Mobilization of War Victims in Afghanistan.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 5, no. 3 (2011): 492-503.

Lindsey, Tim. “Indonesian Constitutional Reform: Muddling Towards Democracy.Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law 6 (2002): 244-301.

McCarthy, Connor. “Reparations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and Reparative Justice Theory.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 3, no. 2 (2009): 250-271.

McEvoy, Kieran. “Beyond Legalism: Towards a Thicker Understanding of Transitional Justice.” Journal of Law and Society 34, no. 4 (2007): 411-440.

Mendeloff, David. “Truth‐Seeking, Truth‐Telling, and Post Conflict Peacebuilding: Curb the Enthusiasm?” International Studies Review 6, no. 3 (2004): 355-380.

Nifosi, Ingrid. “A New Conceptual Framework for Political Transition: A Case Study on Rwanda.” L’Afrique Des Grands Lacs. Annuaire 2004-2005: 71-94.

Ohlin, Jens David. “On the Very Idea of Transitional Justice.” Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 8, no. 1 (2007): 51-68.

Van Zyl, Paul. “Dilemmas of Transitional Justice: The Case of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission.” Journal of International Affairs 52, no. 2 (1999): 647-667.

Teitel, R.G. “The Law and Politics of Comtemporary Transitional Justice”, Cornell International Law Journal 38, (2005): 837-861.

Teitel, R.G. “Transitional Justice Genealogy.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 16, (2003): 69-94.

Rye, Mark S. et. al. “Religious perspectives on forgiveness.” Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice (2000): 17-40.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi and Katharine Orlovsky. “A Complementary Relationship: Reparations and development.” Transitional Justice and Development: Making Connections (2009): 170-213.

Schabas, William. “The Relationship Between Truth Commissions and International Courts: The Case of Sierra Leone.” Human Rights Quarterly 25, no. 4 (2003): 1035-1066.

Stahn, Carsten. “Complementarity, Amnesties and Alternative Forms of Justice: Some Interpretative Guidelines for The International Criminal Court.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 3, no. 3 (2005): 695-720.

Sulistiyanto, Priyambudi. “Politics of Justice and Reconciliation in Post Suharto Indonesia.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 37, no.1 (2007): 73-94.

Van der Merwe, Hugo. “Delivering Justice During Transition: Research Challenges.” Assessing the Impact of Transitional Justice: Challenges for Empirical Research, (2009): 115-142.

Van Zyl, Paul. “Dilemmas of Transitional Justice: The Case of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission.” Journal of International Affairs 52, no. 2 (1999): 647-667.


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Hayner, Priscilla B. Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions. Routledge, 2010.

Indrayana, Denny. Indonesian Constitutional Reform, 1999-2002: An Evaluation of Constitution-Making in Transition, Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas, 2008.

Jose Zalaquett. “Confronting Human Rights Violations Committed by Former Governments: Principles Applicable and Political Constraints”, in Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes, edited by Neil J Kritz, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Studies, 1995.

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Suprapto, Enny. Keadilan Transisional: Masih Relevankah Sebelas Tahun Setelah Reformasi [Transitional Justice: Still Relevant Eleven Years After the Reformation]. This paper was presented as a discussion paper at the discussion on Embodiment Re-actualization of Transitional Justice in Indonesia, held by the National Human Right Commission, Jakarta, 2 March 2012.

Ball, Patrick. Herbert F. Spirer, and Louise Spirer, Making the Case: Investigating Large Scale Human Rights Violations Using Information Systems and Data Analysis, Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2000.

Parmar, Sharanjeet., Mindy Jane Roseman, Saudamini Siegrist, and Theo Sowa, Children and Transitional Justice: Truth-Telling, Accountability, and Reconciliation, Human Rights Program at Harvard Law, 2010.

Patel, Ana Cutter. Transitional Justice, DDR, and Security Sector Reform, ICTJ Research Brief, 2010.

Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia (Supreme Court of The Republic of Indonesia, Pedoman Unsur-unsur Tindak Pidana Pelanggaran HAM yang Berat dan Pertanggungjawaban Komando [Guidelines for the Elements of Crimes of Serious Human Rights Violations and Command Accountability], Mahkamah Agung RI, 2006.

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Van Zyl, Paul. Promoting Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Societies, Security and Governance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Munster, Germany: Lit Verlag Munster, 2005.

Wierda, Marieke and Pablo de Greiff. Reparations and the International Criminal Court: a Prospective Role for the Trust Fund for Victims. New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, 2004.

Waterson, Roxana. “Reconciliation as Ritual: Comparative Perspectives on Innovation and Performance in Processes of Reconciliation,” in Rosanne Kennedy, Lynne Bell and Julia Emberley “Decolonising Testimony: On the Possibilities and Limits of Witnessing” Humanities Research XV. no. 3 (2009).

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