The birth of international law was a direct result of the emergence of civilized and independent states in the sixteenth century in Europe, known as the Enlightenment. So the need for a series of rules to regulate legal relations between these countries. However, until now, Asian and African countries are still fighting for their independence until new problems arise. The polarization of the international community is divided into two, namely developed and developing countries. Where international law is dominated by developed countries with European and American values and does not accommodate the values of local wisdom from developing countries that were former colonies. Indonesia as a developing country must be able to take appropriate steps to anticipate all changes and developments as well as global trends so that national goals can be achieved. One of the important steps taken is to promote and protect their communal rights. The concept of recognizing communal rights originating from developed countries and being accommodated in various international agreements such as The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) which are more in favor of the economic interests and investment of countries progress without paying attention to the disparity in the ability to master knowledge, technology, and information as intangible capital, especially communal rights. The monopoly of intangible capital by developed countries is not in favor of developing countries as owners of communal wealth that should receive appreciation and recognition, as well as economic benefits for developing countries. Indonesia as a developing country rich in natural resources, arts, and culture has various communal assets that require legal recognition and protection and are recognized internationally. Communal rights that are currently developing in Indonesia are a response to the hegemony of communal wealth controlled by developed countries to maintain national identity. The dynamics of the global economy that is driven by knowledge, creativity and technology must not ignore communal rights as part of the domestic economic system. Instead of being skeptical about this, Indonesia as a developing country must determine a strategy to utilize communal rights as intangible capital in economic development. By using a literature study, this paper describes the advantages and challenges in protecting communal rights and their benefits in Indonesia. Communal intellectual property is a form of recognition for the traditional culture of the Indonesian people to be preserved and generate economic benefits for the entire custodial community. In addition, communal intellectual property is protected by the state with unlimited protection which will provide welfare for indigenous peoples. However, there are still some shortcomings in the protection of communal intellectual property because there is still no written and systematic inventory of the traditional cultures produced by indigenous peoples, as well as the registration model and benefit sharing by the state to the custodian community. Government policies are needed to gradually provide effective and efficient protection in the form of defensive protection and the sui generis law.


Journal articles

Adawiyah, Robiatul, Rumawi.“Pengaturan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual dalam Masyarakat Komunal di Indonesia [Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights of Communal Society in Indonesia]”. doi: 10.28946/rpt.v10i1.672.

Adi, Elizabeth Ayu Puspita, I Gusti Ayu Ketut Rachmi Handayani, Supanto. “The Highest 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia: The Basis of the Highest Normative Arrangement of the Mass Organizations in Indonesia”. The 4th Proceeding: Legal Construction and Development in Comparative Study, (2018).

Akbar, Taufan Herdansyah, Agus Subagyo, & Jusmalia Oktaviani“Realisme Dalam Kepentingan Nasional Indonesia Melalui Forum Konferensi Asia Afrika (KAA) dan Gerakan Non Blok (GNB) [Realism in Indonesias National Interests Through the Asian-African Conference Forum and the Non-Aligned Movement]”. Jurnal Dinamika Global 5, no. 1 (2020). https://doi.org/10.36859/jdg.v5i1.194.

Alfons, Maria. “Implementasi Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Dalam Prespektif Negara Hukum [Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights in the Perspective of the Rule of Law]”. Jurnal Legislasi Indonesia 14, no. 3 (2017). https://doi.org/10.54629/jli.v14i3.111.

Asri, Dyah Permata Budi. “Implementasi Pasal 38 ayat (1) Undang-Undang Nomor 28 Tahun 2014 terhadap Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional di Kabupaten Sleman [Implementation of Article 38(1) of Law Number 28 of 2014 on Traditional Cultural Expressions in the Sleman Regency]”. Jurnal Hukum Ius Quia Iustum 23, no. 4 (2016).

Atmadja, Hendra Tanu. “Urgensi Perlindungan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual dalam Perdagangan Bebas [The Urgency of Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Free Trade]”. Jumal Lex Jurnalica 12, no. 3 (2015).

Aulia, M. Zulfa Aulia. “Perlindungan Hukum Ekspresi Kreatif Manusia: Telaah terhadap Perlindungan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual dan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional [Legal Protection of Human Creative Expressions: A Study of the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Cultural Expressions]”. Jurnal Hukum Ius Quia Iustum 14, no. 3 (2007).

Britton-Purdy, Jedediah, David Singh Grewal, Amy Kapcynski, K. Sabeel Rahman. “Building a Law and Political Economy Framework: Beyond the Twentieth Century Synthesis”. The Yale Law Journal 129, no. 6 (2020).

Bustani, Simona Bustani. “Perlindungan Hak Komunal Masyarakat Adat dalam Perspektif Kekayaan Intelektual Tradisional Di Era Globalisasi: Kenyataan dan Harapan [Protection of Indigenous Peoples Communal Rights in the Perspective of Traditional Intellectual Property in the Era of Globalization: Realities and Expectations ”. Jurnal Hukum Prioris 6, no. 3 (2018). https://doi.org/10.25105/prio.v6i3.3184.

Chang, Ha-Joon Chang. “Building Pro-Development Multilateralism: towards a “New” New International Economic Order”. CEPAL Review, no. 132 (2020).

Daties, Dyah R. A. “Memahami Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) [Understanding Third World Approaches to International Law]”. Jurnal Sasi 23, no.1 (2017). https://doi.org/10.47268/sasi.v23i1.154

Freeman, Michael. “Are There Collective Human Rights?”. Political Studies 43, no. 1 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1995.tb01734.x.

Gaffar, Janedjri M.. “Sikap Kritis Negara Berkembang terhadap Hukum Internasional [Critical Attitudes of Developing Countries to International Law]”. Jurnal Konstitusi 10, no. 2 (2013). https://doi.org/10.31078/jk%25x

Hariyanto, Arif, Azis Budianto.“Protection of Indigenous People Law Based on the 1945 Constitution”. ICSSEE, (2021). http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/eai.6-3-2021.2306460.

Kadir, M. Ya’kub Aiyub. “The Failure of New International Economic Order: a Lesson Learned”. Yuridika 36, no 1(2021). doi: 10.20473/ydk.v36i1.13561

Kurnia, Mahendra Putra. “Hukum Internasional (Kajian Ontologis) [International Law (Ontological Studies)]”. Risalah Hukum 4, no. 2 (2008).

Kusuma, Purnama Hadi, Kholis Roisah. “Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional dan Indikasi Geografis: Suatu Kekayaan Intelektual Dengan Kepemilikan Komunal [Protection of Traditional Cultural Expressions and Geographical Indications: An Intellectual Property With Communal Ownership]”. Jurnal Pembangunan Hukum Indonesia 4, no. 1 (2022). https://doi.org/10.14710/jphi.v4i1.107-120.

Mutuf, Makau. ”What is TWAIL?”. Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting 94, (2000). https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272503700054896

OseiTutu, J. Janewa. “Emerging Scholars Series: A Sui Generis Regime for Traditional Knowledge: The Cultural Divide in Intellectual Property”. Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review15, no. 1(2011).

Pramanra, Rio Akbar, Roihanatul Maziyah, Dela Karisma, Putri Rahma Asri, Ayu Tiara Karel Bua, Dimas Bagas Priambodo, Bayu Mahendrea. “Kemitraan Strategis Non-Zero Sum Game: Hubungan ASEAN-Australia dalam Konteks Geopolitik [Non-Zero Sum Game’s Strategic Partnership: ASEAN-Australia Relations in a Geopolitical Context]”. Indonesian Perspective 3, no. 2(2019). https://doi.org/10.14710/ip.v3i2.22347.

Price, Sandra E. Price, Donald S. Siegel. “Assessing the Role of the Federal Government in the Development of New Product, Industries, and Companies: Case Study Evidence since World War II”. Annals of Science and Technology Policy 3, no. 4 (2019). http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/110.00000016.

Putra, Hilton T., Aan Asphianto. “Third World Approach to International Law (TWAIL) Sebuah Pendekatan Alternatif Terhadap Hukum Internasional [Third World Approach to International Law: An Alternative Approach to International Law]” in Prosiding Call Paper Pada Simposium Nasional Asosiasi Pengajar Hukum Internasional (APHI) Hukum Internasional dalam Geopolitik Dunia Kontemporer: Perspektif dan Pengalaman Indonesia, Fakultas Hukum-Universitas Andalas, Bukit http://carano.pustaka.unand.ac.id/index.php/car/catalog/download/37/34/114-1?inline=1

Putri, Yunita Maya. “Perlindungan Bagi Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Komunal [Protection for Communal Intellectual Property Rights]”. Jurnal Hukum De’Rechsstaat 7, no. 2 (2021).

Riadi, Bagus. “Menggugat Hegemoni Demokrasi: Disciplinary Power Demokrasi di Negara Dunia Ketiga [Challenging Democratic Hegemony: Disciplinary Power of Democracy in Third World Countries]”. Politeia: Jurnal Ilmu Politik 12, no. 2 (2020). https://doi.org/10.32734/politeia.v12i2.3695.

Riswandi, Budi Agus. “Politik Hukum Hak Cipta: Meletakan Kepentingan Nasional untuk Tujuan Global [Copyright Law Politics: Putting the National Interest for Global Goals]”, Jurnal Hukum Ius Quia Iustun 11, no. 25 (2004). https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol11.iss25.art6.

Saha, Chandra Nath, Sanjib Bhattacharya “Intellectual Property Right: An overview and Implications in Pharmaceutical Industry”. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2, no. 2 (2011).

Sari, Nuzulia Kumala, Dinda Agnis Mawaradah.“Sistem Pendataan Kebudayaan Terpadu Alternatif Perlindungan Hukum Ekspresi Budaya Tradisonal [Integrated Cultural Data Collection System as an Alternative Legal Protection of Traditional Cultural Expressions]”. Jurnal Legislasi Indonesia 18, no. 3 (2021).

Septarian, Muthia. “Perlindungan Hukum Pengetahuan Tradisional dalam Konsep Hak Kekayaan Intelektual [Legal Protection for Traditional Knowledge in the Concept of Intellectual Property Rights]”. Al-Adl: Jurnal Hukum 8, no. 2 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.31602/al-adl.v8i2.457.

Setiady, Tri Setiady. “Harmonisasi Prinsip-prinsip TRIPs Agreement dalam Hak Kekayaan Intelektual dengan Kepentingan Nasional [Harmonization of the Principles of the TRIPs Agreement in Intellectual Property Rights with National Interests]”. Fiat Justisia Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 8, no. 4 (2014). https://doi.org/10.25041/fiatjustisia.v8no4.322.

Shahrullah, Rina Shahriyani. “Perlindungan terhadap Hasil Karya Cipta Pengrajin Hijab di Kota Batam [Protection of the Copyrights for Hijab Craftsmen in Batam City]”. Journal of Law and Policy Transformation 3, no. 1(2018).

Sofyarto, Karlina. “Perlindungan Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual atas Pengetahuan Tradisional terhadap Perolehan Manfaat Ekonomi [Legal Protection of Intellectual Property Rights on Traditional Knowledge for Economic Benefits]”. Kanun Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 20, no. 1 (2018). https://doi.org/10.24815/kanun.v20i1.9832.

Suparman, Eman. “Perlindungan Hukum Kekayaan Intelektual Masyarakat Tradisional [Legal Protection for Intellectual Property of Traditional Society]”. Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat 2, no. 7(2018).

Triyanta, Agus. “Hak Milik Intelektual dalam Pandangan Hukum Islam [Intellectual Property Rights from the Islamic Law Perspective]”. Jumal Hukum Ius Quia Iustum 8, No. 17 (2001).

Upreti, Pratyush Nath. “A TWAIL Critique of Intellectual Property and Related Disputes in Investor-state Dispute Settlement”. The Journal of World Intellectual Property 25, no. 1: (2022). https://doi.org/10.1111/jwip.12217

Books and book chapters

Afrilliyanna Purba. Pemberdayaan Pelindungan Hukum Pengetahuan Tradisional dan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Sebagai Sarana Pertumbuhan Ekonomi [Empowerment of Legal Protection for Tradition and Cultural Expression as a Means of Growth], Bandung: Alumni, 2012.

Agus Sardjono. Hak Kekayaan Intelektual & Pengetahuan Tradisional [Intellectual Property Rights & Traditional Knowledge]. Bandung: Alumni, 2010.

Agus Sardjono. Pembangunan Hukum Kekayaan Intelektual Indonesia: Antara Kebutuhan dan Kenyataan [Development of Indonesian Intellectual Property Law: Between Necessity and Reality], Jakarta: Pascasarjana Fakultas Hukum UI, 2004.

Anghie, Anton, Imperialism, Sovereignty, and the Making of International Law. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Direktorat Jenderal Kekayaan Intektual Kementerian Hukum dan HAM RI. Modul Kekayaan Intelektual Bidang Kekayaan Intelektual Komunal [Intellectual Property Module for the Communal Intellectual Property Sector], Direktorat Jenderal Kekayaan intelektual Kementerian Hukum dan HAM RI, 2019. https://www.dgip.go.id/unduhan/modul-ki?kategori=kekayaan-intelektual-komunal.

Kutty, P. V. Valsala G.. National Experiences with the Protection of Expressions of Folklore/Traditional Cultural Expressions: India, Indonesia, and the Philippines, WIPO Publication, 1999.

Lutviansori, Atvi. Hak Cipta dan Perlindungan Folklore di Indonesia [Copyright and Folklore Protection in Indonesia], Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2010.

Miranda Risang Ayu, Harry Alexander, Wina Puspitasari. Hukum Sumber Daya Genetik, Pengetahuan Tradisional, dan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional di Indonesia [Law of Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge, and Traditional Cultural Expressions in Indonesia], Bandung: Alumni, 2014.

Miriam Budiarjo. Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Politik [Basics of Political Science], Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Muhammad Djumhana. Perkembangan Doktrin dan Teori Perlindungan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual [Development of Doctrine and Theory of Protection for Intellectual Property Rights], Bandung: Citra Aditya Bakti, 2006.

Riswandi, Budi Agus, M. Syamsudin. Hak Kekayaan Intelektual dan Budaya Hukum [Intellectual Property Rights and Legal Culture], Jakarta: Rajagrafindo Persada, 2004.

Sunaryati Hartono, Hukum Ekonomi Pembangunan Indonesia [Indonesian Economic Development Law], Bandung: Binacipta, 1988.

Tri Harso Karyono. Arsitektur dan Kota Tropis Dunia Ketiga [Architecture and Tropical City of the Third World], Harian Sinar Harapan, 2013.

Trisno Raharjo. Kebijakan Legislatif dalam Pengaturan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual [Legislative Polices on the Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights], Yogyakarta: Pensil Komunka, 2006.

Zainal Daulay. Pengetahuan Tradisonal, Konsep Dasar Hukum dan Praktiknya [Traditional Knowledge, Basic Legal Concepts and its Practices], Jakarta, Radja Grafindo Persada, 2011.

Web sources

Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan, Penelitian dan Pengembangan Daerah Kabupaten Bogor. “Sistem Perlindungan Hukum Kekayaan Intelektual oleh Kementerian Hukum dan HAM RI [Intellectual Property Legal Protection System by the Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights]”. Accessed 7 September 2019, https://bappedalitbang.bogorkab.go.id/topik/sistem-perlindungan-hukum-kekayaan-intelektual-oleh-kementerian-hukum-dan-ham-ri/.

Kapcynzski, Amy, David Singh Grewal, Jedediah Britton-Purdy. “How Law Made Neoliberalism”. Boston Review, (2021). https://bostonreview.net/articles/jedediah-purdy-david-g-victor-amy-kapczynski-lpe/.


Sesa, Benny Andhika, “Upaya Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Seni Ukir Suku Kamoro sebagai Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional di Kabupaten Mimika Provinsi Papua [Legal Protection Efforts For the Kamoro Tribe Carvings as an Expression of Traditional Culture in Mimika Regency, Papua]”. Master’s thesis, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, 2018.

Tuarit, Annissa Nurjana. “Perlindungan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Terhadap Kesenian Gendang Beleq Masyarakat Suku Sasak sebagai Pengetahuan Tradisional dan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional [Protection of Intellectual Property Rights for the Sask Tribe’s Gendang Beleq Art as Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions]”. Bachelor’s thesis, Universitas Brawijaya, 2014.

Puri, Kamal. “Preservation and Conservation of Expressions of Folklore: The Experience of the Pacific Region”. UNESCO-WIPO World Forum on the Protection of Folklore. UNESCO-WIPO/FOLK/PKT/97/4, (1997).