The success of the Indonesian Maritime Policy cannot be separated from Indonesia’s own role, which initiated the establishment of RPOA-IUU Fishing. Global IUU Fishing securitization has led to the localization of anti-IUU fishing in the region and domestic. As a recognized global norm in the Southeast Asia region, IUU Fishing is known to have an impact on comprehensive security in the Southeast Asian region so that a regional regime is formed to fight IUU Fishing. This research aims to find out why norm localization takes place in some countries but not in others such as Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos. What kind of urgency needs more attention from these countries which not comply, than ratifying the anti-IUU fishing norms in each country’s NPOA on IUU Fishing? A qualitative methodology is pursued in this article to identify the formation of official documents. Specifically, discourse analysis is utilized to help understand the intentions of actors through constructive analysis of social phenomena in the obtained documents. There are some important findings due to this research, such as different level of urgency in countries, not all neighbour countries of Indonesia find it important to Norm Localized IUU Fishing.


Legal documents ASEAN. ASEAN Regional Forum Statement on Cooperation to Prevent, Deter, and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing. Australia. Australia’s Second National Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing. Australian Government Department of Agriculture. Malaysia. Malaysia’s National Plan Of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing. Department of Fisheries Malaysia. Philippines. Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Republic of Philippines, National Plan of Action. Books and book chapters Buzan, Barry. People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in The Post Cold War Era. United Kingdom: ECPR Press, 2016. Caballero-Anthony, Melly and Alistair D. B. Cook, Non-traditional Security in Asia: Issues, Challenges and Framework for Action. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013. Carnegie, Paul J. et. al. eds. Human Insecurities in Souteast Asia. Singapore: Springer, 2016. Clapton, William. Risk and Hierarchy in International Society. Taylor and Francis, 2009. de Soto, Alvaro in Mary Kaldor and Iavor Rangelov. The Handbook of Global Security Policy. Wiley Blackwell, 2014. Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF). Pirates and Profiteers- An International Campaign Against Illegal Fishing. London: The Environmental Justice Foundation, 2005. FAO. The State of World Fishereis and Agriculture 2016: Contributing to Food Security and Nutrition for All. Rome: FAO, 2016. Flick, Uwe, Ernst von Kardorff and Ines Steinke. A Companion to Qualitative Research. Sage Publication, 2004. Krasner, Stephen D. International Regimes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983. Radtke, Kurt W. & Raymond Feddema. Comprehensive Security in Asia: Views from Asia and the West on a Changing Security Environment. Netherlands: Brill, 2000. Wardoyo, Broto. Perkembangan, Paradigma, dan Konsep Keamanan Internasional, dan Relevansinya untuk Indonesia. Klaten: Nugra Media, 2015. Journals and periodicals Acharya, Amitav. “How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism.” International Organization 58, no.2 (2004): 239-275. Baird, Rachel. “Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing: An Analysis of the Legal, Economic and Historical Factors Relevant to Its Development and Persistence.” Melbourne Journal of International Law 5 (2004): 299-334. Buzan, Barry. “New Patterns of Global Security in the Twenty-First Century.” International Affairs 67, no. 3 (1991): 431-451. Chatterjee, Aditi. “Non-Traditional Maritime Security Threats in the Indian Ocean Region.” Maritime Affairs: Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India. 10, no. 2 (2018): 77-95. DOI: 10.1080/09733159.2014.972669. Dirhamsyah. “IUU Fishing in Indonesia’s Live Reef Fisheries.” Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs 4, no. 2 (2012): 44-52. DOI: 10.1080/18366503.2012.10815700 Isnurhadi, M. Rizqi. “Sekuritisasi Illegal, Unreported, Unregulated Fishing (IUUF) di Perairan Indonesia di Era Pemerintahan Joko Widodo.” Jurnal Hubungan Internasional X, no.2. (2017): 118-132. Johns, Murray. “Enhancing Responsible Fishing Practices in South East Asia to Combat Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing.” Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs 5, no. 3 (2013): 112-119. DOI: 10.1080/18366503.2013.10815741. Keliat, Makmur. “Keamanan Maritim dan Implikasi Kebijakannya Bagi Indonesia.” Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik 13 no. 1 (2009): 111-129. Kemenko Kemaritiman. “KKI Perkuat Poros Maritim Dunia [Indonesian Maritime Policy Strenghten the World Maritime Fulcrum.” Majalah Kemaritiman 1, no. 1 (2018): 13-14. Miller, Denzil G. & Elise Clark. “Promoting responsible harvesting by mitigating IUU fishing: a three-block and OODA construct?” Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affaris 11, no. 1 (2019): 1-36. Muhamad, Simela Victor. “Illegal Fishing di Perairan Indonesia: Permasalahan dan Upaya Penanganannya Secara Bilateral di Kawasan.” Politica 3, no. 1 (2012): 59-85. Nagan, Winston P. and Craig Hammer. “The Changing Character of Sovereignty in International Law and International Relations.” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 43 (2004): 141-187. Paris, Roland. “Peacebuilding and The Limits of Liberal Internationalism.” International Security 22 (1997): 54-89. Pratikto, Widi Agoes & Sunyoto. “Partnership in Building Community Resilience on Disaster in the Region of Coral Triangle, Indonesian Case.” Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 14 (2015): 1-8. Riddle, Kevin W. “Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing: Is International Cooperation Contagious?” Ocean Development & International Law, 37: 3-4 (2006): 265-297. DOI: 10.1080/00908320600800929. Salfauz, Claudia Radekna. “Efektivitas Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries di Samudra Hindia. Studi Kasus: Kerjasama Indonesia dan Australia Menanggulangi Illegal Unregulated Unreported (IUU) Fishing” Journal of International Relations 1, no. 2 (2015): 57-63. Septaria, Ema. “IUU Fishing in Indonesia, Are ASEAN Member State Responsible For?” International Journal of Business, Economic and Law 11, no. 4 (2016): 76-82. Wiener, Antje. “Enacting Meaning-in-use: Qualitative Research on Norms and International Relations.” Review of International Studies 35, no. 1 (2009): 175-193. Websites Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs, “Introduction,” 14 November 2018, https://maritim.go.id/konten/telah-terbit-majalah-kemaritiman-edisi-perdana-tahun-2018/. FAO. “Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing: Links between IUU Fishing and other crimes.” Accessed 10 September 2018, http://www.fao.org/iuu-fishing/background/links-between-iuu-fishing-and-other-crimes/en/. KKP. “Kerja Sama Lintas Negara Berantas Illegal Fishing [Cross-border Cooperation Eradicates Illegal Fishing].” Accessed 23 March 2018, https://news.kkp.go.id/index.php/kerja-sama-lintas-negara-berantas-illegal-fishing/ . Kompas.com, “Ini Faktor Penyebab Maraknya Illegal Fishing di Wilayah Perairan RI.” 18 April 2017. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/04/18/19452311/ini.faktor.penyebab.maraknya.ille at October 19th 2018. Nurfadilah, Putri Syifa. (2018) “Mantan Melnu AS: RI Konsisten Tangani Illegal Fishing”. Retrieved from https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2018/10/30/133624826/mantan-menlu-as-ri-konsisten-tangani-illegal-fishing retrieved at 10th September 2018. Nurfadilah, Putri Syifa. “Mantan Melnu AS: RI Konsisten Tangani Illegal Fishing.” Kompas, 10 September 2018, https://ekonomi.kompas.com/read/2018/10/30/133624826/mantan-menlu-as-ri-konsisten-tangani-illegal-fishing. Ramdhani, Jabbar. “Bakamla Kawal Pemulangan 239 ABK Vietnam Terkait Illegal Fishing [Bakamla Escorts the Repatriation of 239 Vietnamese Illegal Fishing Crews]” Detik, 4 October 2017, accessed 10 September 2018, https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3670443/bakamla-kawal-pemulangan-239-abk-vietnam-terkait-illegal-fishing. Others Brunei Darussalam. “Brunei Darussalam Initiatives: Combating IUU Fishing.” Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Primary Resouces and Tourism, retrieved July 14, 2018. http://www.seafdec.org/documents/2016/03/sc16_sc04-bn.pdf Hibatullah, Fariz. “Implementasi Unilateralisme ZEE Indonesia Terkait Kasus IUU Fishing Studi Kasus: IUU Fishing Indonesia-Vietnam 2014-2015 [The Implementation of Unilateralism of Indonesia EEZ related to IUU fishing the Case of IUU Fishing of Indonesia – Vietnam 2014-2015]” (Thesis, Airlangga University, 2018). Maronie, Sherief. “Telaah Penegakkan Hukum Tindak Pidana Perikanan Wilayah Perairan Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif Indonesia.” Accessed 8 October 2018, http://kkp.go.id/an-component/media/upload-gambar-pendukung/djpdspkp/Penegakan%20Hukum%20TPP%20di%20Wilayah%20ZEEI%20(11%20Mei%2018).pdf Palma, Mary Ann, Martin Tsamenyi. Case Study on the Impacts of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing in the Sulawesi Sea. APEC Fisheries Working Group, 2008. Stone, Marianne. “Security According to Buzan: A Comprehensive Security Analysis.” Security Discussion Papers Series 1, 2009.