Abdellatif Rahim : 0000-0001-5832-1710
Wissal El Karfi : 0000-0001-7048-6921
Lalla Asmaa Katir Masnaoui : 0000-0001-5866-1539
Bouchra El Amiri : 0000-0003-3443-5988
Abdel Khalid Essamadi : 0000-0003-4537-1684
Background: This study aimed to determine the factors influencing the choice of toothpaste by students in Settat (Morocco) and investigate the characteristics of those most commercialized in this region.
Methods: A close-ended questionnaire was developed and filled out. This was a cross-sectional study of 429 students who agreed to participate. Based on questionnaire data, the 15 most commercialized toothpaste by respondents were purchased, and their packaging was investigated.
Results: After analysis using Excel 2019, the results revealed that the major factors influencing the choice of toothpaste are brand 55%, family choice 48%, and media advertisements 40%. Moreover, about 57% of respondents chose toothpaste brands with monofluorophosphate as a therapeutic fluoridated agent, whereas 41% chose those with NaF. In addition, 85% of respondents chose a toothpaste brand that has silica abrasive. Moreover, only 44% chose toothpaste with production and expiration dates. Finally, the total fluoride and total soluble fluoride were lower compared with the quantity of fluoride expected from the packaging.
Conclusions: The present study indicated that the respondents selected their toothpaste primarily based on brands, family choices, and media advertisements. Incomplete labeling was encountered in toothpaste used by 58% of the respondents.
- Prasai Dixit L, Shakya A, Shrestha M, Shrestha A. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal. BMC Oral Health. 2013;13:20.
- Pitts NB, Zero DT, Marsh PD, Ekstrand K, Weintraub JA, Ramos-Gomez F, et al. Dental caries. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17030.
- Tafere Y, Chanie S, Dessie T, Gedamu H. Assessment of prevalence of dental caries and the associated factors among patients attending dental clinic in Debre Tabor general hospital: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2018;18:119.
- Fera MO, Fera OV, Kryvanych VM, Bilyschuk LM, Kostenko SB, Kryvanych AV, et al. Analysis of environmental and person-oriented factors influence on dental caries intensity among children population of Transcarpathia. J Int Dent Med Res. 2020;13:1326–33.
- Sorkhdini P, Crystal YO, Tang Q, Lippert F. The effect of silver diamine fluoride in preventing in vitro primary coronal caries under pH-cycling conditions. Arch Oral Biol. 2021;121:104950.
- Pollick H. The role of fluoride in the prevention of tooth decay. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2018;65:923–40.
- Wright JT, Hanson N, Ristic H, Whall CW, Estrich CG, Zentz RR. Fluoride toothpaste efficacy and safety in children younger than 6 years: A systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014;145:182–9.
- Cury JA, Caldarelli PG, Tenuta LM. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes. Rev Saude Publica. 2015;49:74.
- Zero DT, Lippert F, Hara AT, Creeth JE, Newby EE, Butler A, et al. In situ anticaries efficacy of dentifrices with different formulations - A pooled analysis of results from three randomized clinical trials. J Dent. 2018;77:93–105.
- Martínez-Pabón MC, Galvis-Pareja DA, Builes-Sánchez ÁP, García-Ortega DA, Cañas-Londoño LT, Arango-Arango MI. The use of fluoride dentifrices in children: Conceptual bases in a confusing context. A topic review. Rev Fac Odontol Univ Antioq. 2017;29:187–210.
- Cury JA, Oliveira MJL de, Martins CC, Tenuta LMA, Paiva SM. Available fluoride in toothpastes used by Brazilian children. Braz Dent J. 2010;21:396–400.
- Benzian H, Holmgren C, Helderman W van P. Efficacy of fluoride toothpaste over time. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:311–314.
- Chávez BA, Vergel GB, Cáceres CP, Perazzo MF, Vieira-Andrade RG, Cury JA. Fluoride content in children’s dentifrices marketed in Lima, Peru. Braz Oral Res. 2019;33:e051.
- Walsh T, Worthington HV, Glenny A-M, Marinho VC, Jeroncic A. Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;3:CD007868.
- Rahim A, Essamadi A, El Amiri B. A comprehensive review on endemic and experimental fluorosis in sheep: Its diverse effects and prevention. Toxicology. 2022;465:153025.
- O'Mullane DM, Baez RJ, Jones S, Lennon MA, Petersen PE, Rugg-Gunn AJ, et al. Fluoride and oral health. Community Dent Health. 2016;33:69–99.
- Opeodu OI, Gbadebo SO. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Ann Ib Postgrad Med. 2017;15:51–6.
- Awais F, Shahzad H, Naheed K, Khan AA. Factors influencing consumers’ choices of oral hygiene products: A cross-sectional study. Makara J Health Res. 2019;23:138–42.
- Agrawal A, Agrawal A. Exploring the factors influencing the choice of oral care products: A review on personalized approach. Int J Oral Dent Health. 2020;6:109.
- Chala S, El Aidouni M, Abouqal R, Abdallaoui F. U-shaped association between untreated caries and body mass index in adults at Rabat dental University hospital, Morocco: Cross sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:5.
- Bijle MN, Tsoi J, Ekambaram M, Lo ECM, Carey CM, Yiu CKY. Inter-method reliability for determining total and soluble fluorides in child low-fluoride formula dentifrices. Sci Rep. 2020;10:20880.
- Creusen MEH, Schoormans JPL. The different roles of product appearance in consumer choice. J Prod Innov Manag. 2005;22:63–81.
- Verma S, Rojhe KC. Evoked set: Relation between known, acceptable and purchased brands of toothpaste & shampoo product category of FMCG in rural arcade. Int J Health Sci. 2022;6:10089–99.
- Zajjari Y, Bagui M, Aatif T, ELKabbaj D, Sakout M. Oral health status in Moroccan hemodialysis patients. Arch Med. 2017;9.
- Chala S, Silorh K, Abouqal R, Abdallaoui F. Factors associated with dental care use among a population of Moroccan adolescents. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale. 2016;117:367–71.
- Chala S, Houzmali S, Abouqal R, Abdallaoui F. Knowledge, attitudes and self-reported practices toward children oral health among mother's attending maternal and child's units, Salé, Morocco. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:618.
- Sharda A, Sharda J. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products used among the population of Udaipur, India. Int J Dent Clin. 2010;2:7–12.
- Sivadasan V, Manjunath C, Murthy AK, Shilpashree KB, Divya BM, Keerthy S. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products used among the outpatients attending a dental college in Bangalore: A cross sectional study. Int J Appl Dent Sci. 2021;7:79–83.
- Mbura O, Kagoya S. Effect of advertisement on consumers’ buying behaviour of real estates in Tanzania: Insight from the National Housing Corporation. Tanzan Econ Rev. 2021;11:137–55.
- Sama R. Impact of media advertisements on consumer behaviour. J Creat Commun. 2019;14:54–68.
- Jovanović P, Vlastelica T, Kostić SC. Impact of advertising appeals on purchase intention. Manag. 2017;21:35–45.
- Adegbulugbe IC, Adegbulugbe IC. Factors governing the choice of dentifrices by patients attending the Dental Centre, Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2007;17:18–21.
- Umanah AU, Braimoh OB. Oral hygiene practices and factors influencing the choice of oral hygiene materials among undergraduate students at the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. J Dent Allied Sci. 2017;6:3–7.
- Goldman AS, Yee R, Holmgren CJ, Benzian H. Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste. Glob Health. 2008;4:7.
- Kote S, Dadu M, A R S, Ds A, Arora D. Knowledge, Attitude and behaviour for choosing oral hygiene aids among students of Management Institutes, Ghaziabad, India. West Indian Med J. 2013;62:758–63.
- Zougagh S, Belghiti A, Rochd T, Zerdani I, Mouslim J. Medicinal and aromatic plants used in traditional treatment of the oral pathology: The ethnobotanical survey in the Economic Capital Casablanca, Morocco (North Africa). Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2019;9:35–48.
- Hazarika JM, Sarkar PK, Chattopadhyay A, Mandal TK, Sarkar S. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015;22:4942–8.
- Nishanov B, Ahunjonov U. The influence of store characteristics on consumers’ impulse buying behaviour. J Int Bus Res Mark. 2016;1:20–26.
- van Loveren C, Moorer WR, Buijs MJ, van Palenstein Helderman WH. Total and free fluoride in toothpastes from some non-established market economy countries. Caries Res. 2005;39:224–30.
- Veeresh DJ, Wadgave U. Assessment of total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Davangere: A cross sectional survey. J Indian Asssoc of Public Health Dent. 2014;12:320–2.
- Zaze AC, Dias AP, Amaral JG, Miyasaki ML, Sassaki KT, Delbem AC. In situ evaluation of low-fluoride toothpastes associated to calcium glycerophosphate on enamel remineralization. J Dent. 2014;42:1621–5.
- Farooq I, Ali S, Al-Khalifa KS, Alhooshani K. Total and soluble fluoride concentration present in various commercial brands of children toothpastes available in Saudi Arabia - A pilot study. Saudi Dent J. 2018;30:161–5.
- Vorster L, Naidoo S, Stauf N, Holmgren C, Benzian H. Fluoride content of toothpastes available in South Africa. Community Dent Health. 2018;35:186–92.
- Loureiro LA, Fager AF, Santos Moreira MJ, Maltz M, Hashizume LN. Fluoride availability and stability in children's toothpastes in Uruguay. J Dent Child (Chic). 2017;84:52–7.
- Souza-Rodrigues RD, Ferreira Sda S, D'Almeida-Couto RS, Lachowski KM, Sobral MÂ, Marques MM. Choice of toothpaste for the elderly: An in vitro study. Braz Oral Res. 2015;29:S1806-83242015000100288.
- Sebastian ST, Siddanna S. Total and free fluoride concentration in various brands of toothpaste marketed in India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9:ZC09–12.
- Jairoun AA, Al-Hemyari SS, Shahwan M, Jairoun O, Zyoud SH. Analysis of Fluoride concentration in toothpastes in the United Arab Emirates: Closing the Gap between local regulation and practice. Cosmetics. 2021;8:113.
- Matias JB, Azevedo CS, do Vale HF, Rebelo MA, Cohen-Carneiro F. Fluoride stability in dentifrices stored in schools in a town of northern Brazil. Braz Oral Res. 2015;29:S1806-83242015000100304.
Rahim A, El Karfi W, Katir Masnaoui L, El Amiri B, Essamadi A. Factors Influencing the Choice of Toothpaste and Investigation of Those Most Commercialized by Students in Settat, Morocco. Makara J Health Res. 2022;26.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License.