Background: This study aimed to examine the effects of ectodermal dysplasia (ED) on the transverse width of the maxillary bone.
Methods: The ED group was composed of seven people, while the control group consisted of retrospective cone-beam computed tomography images of seven individuals with skeletal class 1 relationship. Images on the sagittal planes were taken, and cross-sections were taken from the longest point of the Anterior Nasal Spine-Posterior Nasal Spine line. The distance between the distal anterior canine teeth from the right buccal cortical bone to the left buccal cortical bone was measured. At the posterior region, the distance between the right point where the pterygoid protrusions and the tuber maxilla fused and the left point was measured.
Results: The ED group has significantly narrower (p < 0.05) anterior region than the control group, and no significant difference in the posterior region width was found between the ED group and control group.
Conclusions: The quality of life should be improved by awareness of ED in dentistry, by using a professional approach and modern applications such as three-dimensional computed tomography when necessary, and by considering the morphological characteristics of the patients.
- Hekmatfar S, Jafari K, Meshki R, Badakhsh S. Dental management of ectodermal dysplasia: Two clinical case reports. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2012;6:108–12.
- Deshmukh S, Prashanth S. Ectodermal dysplasia: A genetic review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2012;5:197–202.
- Srivastava VK. Ectodermal dysplasia: A case report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2011;4:269–70.
- Patel A, Kshar A, Byakodi R, Paranjpe A, Awale S. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia: A case report and review. Int J Adv Health Sci. 2014;1:38–42.
- Zengingül Aİ, Karadede Mİ, Güzel KG. Orthodontic-prosthetic treatment in a case of ectodermal dysplasia. Turkish Dental Association, 3rd International Dentistry Congress, Ankara, Turkey; 1996.
- Pinheiro M, Freire-Maia N. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome--A clinical and genetic analysis of a large Brazilian kindred: III. Carrier detection. Am J Med Genet. 1979;4:129–34.
- Freire-Maia N, Pinheiro M. Ectodermal dysplasia: A clinical and genetic study. New York: Alan R. Liss; 1984.
- Callea M, Yavuz I, Clarich G, Cammarata-Scalisi F. Estudio clínico y molecular en un escolar con displasia ectodérmica hipohidrótica ligada al X [Clinical and molecular study in a child with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015;113:e341–4.
- Wright JT, Grange DK, Fete M. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al. Eds. GeneReviews® [Internet]. University of Washington, 2003.
- Valjakova EB, Misevska C, Stevkovska VK, Gigovski N, Ivkovska AS, Bajraktarova B, et al. Prosthodontic management of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: A case report. S Eur J Orthod Dentofac Res. 2015;2:20–6.
- Sfeir E, Nassif N, Moukarzel C. Use of mini dental implants in ectodermal dysplasia children: Follow-up of three cases. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2014;15:207–12.
- Ladda R, Gangadhar S, Kasat V, Bhandari A. Prosthodontic management of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with anodontia: A case report in pediatric patient and review of literature. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013;3:277–81.
- Zengingül Aİ, Nigiz R, Karadede Mİ. Orthodontic-prosthetic approach (due to two cases with ectodermal dysplasia). Turkish Dental Association, National Dentistry Congress, İzmir, Turkey; 1995.
- Callea M, Nieminen P, Willoughby CE, Clarich G, Yavuz I, Vinciguerra A, et al. A novel INDEL mutation in the EDA gene resulting in a distinct X- linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia phenotype in an Italian family. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30:341–3.
- Callea M, Teggi R, Yavuz I, Tadini G, Priolo M, Crovella S, et al. Ear nose throat manifestations in hypoidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:1801–4.
- Callea M, Cammarata-Scalisi F, Willoughby CE, Giglio SR, Sani I, Bargiacchi S, et al. Estudio clínico y molecular en una familia con displasia ectodérmica hipohidrótica autosómica dominante [Clinical and molecular study in a family with autosomal dominant hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2017;115:e34–8.
- Chandravanshi SL. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: A case report. Orbit. 2020;39:298–301.
- Mittal M, Srivastava D, Kumar A, Sharma P. Dental management of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: A report of two cases. Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;6:414–7.
- Bergendal B. Orodental manifestations in ectodermal dysplasia-A review. Am J Med Genet A. 2014;164A:2465–71.
- Prasad R, Al-Kheraif AA, Kathuria N, Madhav VNV, Bhide SV, Ramakrishnaiah R. Ectodermal dysplasia: Dental management and complete denture therapy. World Appl Sci J. 2012;20:423–8.
- Doğan MS, Callea M, Yavuz Ì, Aksoy O, Clarich G, Günay A, et al. An evaluation of clinical, radiological and three-dimensional dental tomography findings in ectodermal dysplasia cases. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20:e340–6.
- Goodwin AF, Larson JR, Jones KB, Liberton DK, Landan M, Wang Z, et al. Craniofacial morphometric analysis of individuals with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2014;2:422–9.
- Yavuz I, Ikbal A, Baydaş B, Ceylan I. Longitudinal posteroanterior changes in transverse and vertical craniofacial structures between 10 and 14 years of age. Angle Orthod. 2004;74:624–9.
- Snodell SF, Nanda RS, Currier GF. A longitudinal cephalometric study of transverse and vertical craniofacial growth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993;104:471–83.
- Mushtaq N, Tajik I, Baseer S, Shakeel S. Intercanine and intermolar widths in angle class I, II and III malocclusions. Pak Oral Dent J. 2014;34:83–6.
- Staley RN, Stuntz WR, Peterson LC. A comparison of arch widths in adults with normal occlusion and adults with class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Am J Orthod. 1985;88:163–9.
- Memarpour M, Oshagh M, Hematiyan MR. Determination of the dental arch form in the primary dentition using a polynomial equation model. J Dent Child. 2012;79:136–42.
- Ahn JS, Park MS, Cha HS, Song HC, Park YS. Three-dimensional interpretation of intercanine width change in children: A 9-year longitudinal study. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2012;142:323–32.
- Hong WH, Radfar R, Chung CH. Relationship between the maxillary transverse dimension and palatally displaced canines: A cone-beam computed tomographic study. Angle Orthod. 2015;85:440–5.
- Aksoy O. Rapid evaluation of the effects of maxillary expansion on maxillary and mandibular bone volume by conical beam computed tomography [dissertation]. Diyarbakır: T.C. Dicle University Institute of Health Sciences Department of Orthodontics; 2014.
- Hekimoğlu S. Rapid evaluation of respiratory changes by computed tomography in patients with maxillary expansion [dissertation]. Diyarbakır: T.C. Dicle University Institute of Health Sciences Department of Orthodontics; 2012.
- Koo YJ, Choi SH, Keum BT, Yu HS, Hwang CJ, Melsen B, Lee KJ. Maxillomandibular arch width differences at estimated centers of resistance: Comparison between normal occlusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Korean J Orthod. 2017;47:167–75.
- Sulewska M, Duraj E, Bugała-Musiatowicz B, Waszkiewicz-Sewastianik E, Milewski R, Pietruski JK, et al. Assessment of the effect of the corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment on the maxillary periodontal tissue in patients with malocclusions with transverse maxillary deficiency: A case series. BMC Oral Health. 2018;18:162.
- Hwang S, Song J, Lee J, Choi YJ, Chung CJ, Kim KH. Three-dimensional evaluation of dentofacial transverse widths in adults with different sagittal facial patterns. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2018;154:365–74.
- Ekşi ÇD. Three dimensional investigation of pharyngeal airway volume in individuals with different malocclusion [dissertation]. Diyarbakır: T.C. Dicle University Institute of Health Sciences Department of Orthodontics; 2014.
- Bhalla G, Agrawal KK, Chand P, Singh K, Singh BP, Goel P, et al. Effect of complete dentures on craniofacial growth of an ectodermal dysplasia patient: A clinical report. J Prosthodont. 2013;22:495–500.
- Li D, Liu Y, Ma W, Song Y. Review of ectodermal dysplasia: case report on treatment planning and surgical management of oligodontia with implant restorations. Implant Dent. 2011;20:328–30.
- Naiboğlu E. Investigation of the effects of two different functional appliances on lower and upper jaw volume in mandibular retrognathia patients using cone beam computed tomography [dissertation]. Diyarbakır: T.C. Dicle University Institute of Health Sciences Department of Orthodontics; 2014.
- Katayama K, Yamaguchi T, Sugiura M, Haga S, Maki K. Evaluation of mandibular volume using cone-beam computed tomography and correlation with cephalometric values. Angle Orthod. 2014;84:337–42.
- Miševska CB, Kanurkova L, Valjakova EB, Georgieva S, Bajraktarova B, Georgiev Z, et al. Craniofacial morphology in individuals with increasing severity of hypodontia. S Eur J Orthod Dentofacial Res. 2016;3:12–7.
- Durey K, Cook P, Chan M. The management of severe hypodontia. Part 1: Considerations and conventional restorative options. Br Dent J. 2014;216:25–9.
- Endo T, Yoshino S, Ozoe R, Kojima K, Shimooka S. Association of advanced hypodontia and craniofacial morphology in Japanese orthodontic patients. Odontology. 2004;92:48–53.
- Nakayama Y, Baba Y, Tsuji M, Fukuoka H, Ogawa T, Ohkuma M, et al. Dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2015;55:42–8.
- Johnson EL, Roberts MW, Guckes AD, Bailey LJ, Phillips CL, Wright JT. Analysis of craniofacial development in children with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Am J Med Genet. 2002;112:327–34.
- Saksena SS, Bixler D. Facial morphometrics in the identification of gene carriers of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Am J Med Genet. 1990;35:105–14.
- Lexner MO, Bardow A, Bjorn-Jorgensen J, Hertz JM, Almer L, Kreiborg S. Anthropometric and cephalometric measurements in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2007;10:203–15.
- Karadede B. Investigation of maxilla and mandibular volumes of individuals with different skeletal face types by conical beam computed tomography method [dissertation]. İstanbul: Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry Department of Orthodontics; 2015.
Ünal BK. Effects of Ectodermal Dysplasia on the Maxilla: A Study of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. Makara J Health Res. 2021;25.