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Abstract

The growth of online retail is considerably fast, prompted by the development of information technology and the internet in society. During the pandemic, people are often prohibited by law from commencing activities outside of their homes to prevent virus spreading. This situation made accessing e-commerce for online shopping became a norm. Last year, research presented approximately twenty million visitors increase in Indonesian online retail platforms during the first half of 2020, which was also the earlier phase of the pandemic in Indonesia. The highest-selling products during this period fell in the retail category, including fashion, hobby, and medical drugs and supplies. The two pieces of information indicate that the online retail business was booming because of the pandemic. From architectural perspective, discussions regarding online retail business at its early growth were unfavourable as this business reduces the need for physical commercial buildings or stores. Later, architectural research stated that the business is beneficial as it birthed a new industrial facility known as a fulfilment centre.

The booming business and the current favourable impression of online retail became the catalyst of this paper; it provided a short architectural review on the business in the pandemic context and what it may bring for architectural research in the future. This research applies a qualitative approach developed through a structured literature review on the online commercial market during the pandemic, online retail business over time, and related real estate development. The result is a diagram of how the pandemic, technology and the internet, and architecture are correlated and several topic recommendations for future studies.

Bahasa Abstract

Pertumbuhan ritel daring cukup pesat, didorong oleh perkembangan teknologi informasi dan internet di masyarakat. Selama pandemi, masyarakat dilarang oleh regulasi pemerintah untuk memulai aktivitas di luar rumah untuk mencegah penyebaran virus. Situasi ini membuat pengaksesan e-commerce untuk belanja online menjadi hal yang lumrah. Tahun lalu, penelitian mempresentasikan peningkatan sekitar dua puluh juta pengunjung di platform ritel daring Indonesia selama paruh pertama tahun 2020, yang juga merupakan fase awal pandemi di Indonesia. Produk dengan penjualan tertinggi selama periode ini jatuh pada kategori ritel, antara lain fashion, hobi, serta obat-obatan dan perbekalan kesehatan. Dua informasi tersebut menunjukkan bahwa bisnis ritel daring sedang booming karena pandemi. Dari perspektif arsitektur, diskusi mengenai bisnis ritel daring pada awal pertumbuhannya kurang menguntungkan karena bisnis ini mengurangi kebutuhan akan bangunan komersial atau ritel komersial. Belakangan, penelitian arsitektur menyatakan bahwa bisnis ini menguntungkan karena melahirkan fasilitas industri baru yang dikenal sebagai pusat pemenuhan.

Bisnis yang berkembang pesat dan kesan yang baik dari ritel daring saat ini menjadi katalis dari studi ini; yaitu memberikan tinjauan arsitektur singkat tentang bisnis dalam konteks pandemi dan apa yang mungkin dibawanya untuk penelitian arsitektur di masa depan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif yang dikembangkan melalui kajian pustaka terstruktur mengenai pasar komersial online di masa pandemi, bisnis ritel online dari waktu ke waktu, dan perkembangan real estate terkait. Hasilnya penelitian ini disimpulkan dalam diagram mengenai korelasi antara pandemi, teknologi dan internet, dan arsitektur dan beberapa rekomendasi topik untuk studi masa depan.

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