Estrogen deficiency increases the rate of osteoporosis, especially in menopausal women, by altering the bone tissue microarchitecture. Propolis has compounds that could be used as an alternative therapy to treat estrogen deficiency and to protect against bone damage. This study aims to determine the effect of propolis on bone quality and cortical bone thickness of femoral metaphysis in ovariectomized female Wistar white rats as a model for menopausal osteoporosis. The rats were divided into five groups: negative control group (not subjected to ovariectomy), sham group (subjected to ovariectomy), and treatment groups that were subjected to ovariectomy and given propolis orally at a dose of 180 mg/kg BW, 360 mg/kg BW, and 720 mg/kg BW for 30 days. Bone quality and cortical bone thickness testing were undertaken on the 31st day. The osteoblast and osteoclast cell examination was evaluated using an Olympus BX 51 light microscope at 400x magnification for bone quality and the Betaview program, Beta 3.1MP Sony Exmor CMOS Sensor camera at 40x magnification for cortical bone thickness. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and continued with Duncan’s multiple range tests. It was found that propolis had a significant effect on the ratio of osteoblast and femur bone osteoclasts (p0.05). The administration of propolis at a dose of 180 mg/kg BW, 360 mg/kg BW, and 720 mg/kg BW had an effect in decreasing the ratio of osteoblasts and metaphysical osteoclast cells of femoral metaphysics. However, propolis administration did not affect the thickness of the femoral metaphysical cortical bone


Altan BA, Kara IM, Nalcaci R, Ozan F, Erdogan SM, Ozkut MM, Inan S. (2013). Systemic propolis stimulates new bone formation at the expanded suture Az histomorphometric study. Angle Orthodonthist, 83(2):286–291.

Darmadi D, Mustamsir E. (2016). The Effect of propolis on increasing the number of osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and decreasing the number of osteoclasts in wistar rats (rattusnovergicus) with femoral bone fracture. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15(12):90–95.

Ermawati DH. (2018). Menopause and biopsychosocial factors associated with quality of life in women in Surakarta, Central Java. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 03(02):119-27.

Fait T. (2019). Menopause hormone therapy: Latest developments and clinical practice. Drugs Context, 8:1–9.

Gambacciani M, Biglia N, Cagnacci A, Caruso S, Cicinelli E, De Leo V, et al. (2018). Menopause and hormone replacement therapy: The 2017 recommendations of the Italian menopause society. Minerva Ginecol, 70(1):27-34.

Geng Q, Gao H, Yang R, Guo K, Miao D. (2019). Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and osteocyte senescence. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 15(1):56–68.

Ginta Siahaan, Efendi Nainggolan DL. (2015). Hubungan Komposisi Tubuh dengan Kepadatan Tulang Wanita Usia Subur di Kota Bandung. Indonesian Journal of Human Nutrition, 2(1):48-59.

Grabowski P. (2015). Physiology of Bone. Endocrine Development, 28(3):33–55.

Guney A, Karaman I, Oner M, Yerer MB. (2011). Effects of propolis on fracture healing: An experimental study. Phytoherapy Research, 25:1648–1652.

Hsu P, Tsai M, Wang S, Chen Y, Wu J, Hsu J. (2016). Cortical bone morphological and trabecular bone microarchitectural changes in the mandible and femoral neck of ovariectomized rats. PLoS One, 1–16.

Ishtiaq S, Ullah A, Ali K, Attaullah M, Khan H, Ali H, Bashir MA, Tahir M, Ansari MJ, Ghramh HA, Adgaba N, Dash CK. (2018). Composition and functional properties of propolis (bee glue): A review. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 1-9.

Joshua J, Kalyanaraman H, Marathe N, Pilz RB. (2014). Nitric oxide as a mediator of estrogen effects in osteocytes. Vitamins and Hormones, 96:247–263.

Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Sernbo I, Redlund-Johnell I, Dawson A, et al. (2000). Long-term risk of osteoporotic fracture in Malmo. Osteoporosis International, 11(8):669-74.

Kemenkes RI. (2015). Info Datin Data & Kondisi Penyakit Osteoporosis di Indonesia. Jakarta Selatan: Kemenkes RI Pusat Data dan Informasi.

Kocot J, Luchowska-kocot D, Kurzepa J, Musik I. (2018). Review article antioxidant potential of propolis, bee pollen, and royal jelly : possible medical application. Hindawi Oxidative Celullar Longevity, 1-29.

Liu T, Ding S, Yin D, Cuan X, Xie C, Xu H, Wang X, Sheng J. (2017). Pu-erh tea extract ameliorates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8:1–12.

Luka D, Fu A, Muhvi D, Giacometti J. (2015). The role of polyphenols on bone metabolism in osteoporosis. Food Research International, 77:290–298.

Mescher AL. (2012.). Junqueira’s Basic Histology Book & Atlas 12th. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC.

Mödder UI, Roforth MM, Hoey K, Mccready LK, James M, Monroe DG, et al. (2011). Effects of estrogen on osteoprogenitor cells and cytokines/ bone-regulatory factors in postmenopausal women. Bone, 49(2):202–207.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) U.S Departmenr. (2018). Osteoporosis overview. NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Disease National Resource Center, 1–5.

Okman-kilic T. (2015). Estrogen deficiency and osteoporosis. IntechOpen.

Segueni N, Zellagui A, Moussaoui F, Lahouel M. (2011). Flavonoids from Algerian propolis. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9(1):S425-S428.

Sihombing I, Wangko S, Kalangi SJR. (2012). Peran estrogen pada remodeling tulang. Jurnal Biomedik, 4(3):18-28.

Thulkar J, Singh S. (2015). Overview of research studies on osteoporosis in menopausal women since the last decade. Journal of Midlife Health, 6(3):104.

U.T. Iwaniec, M.G. Dube, S. Boghossian, H. Song, W.G. Helferich, S.P. Kalra RTT. (2012). Body mass influences cortical bone mass independent of leptin signaling. Bone.

Yudaniayanti IS, Primarizky H, Nangoi L, Yuliani GA. (2019). Protective effects of honey by bees (Apis dorsata) on decreased cortical thickness and bone impact strength of ovariohysterectomized rats as models for menopause. Veterinary World, 12:868–876.

Yousefzadeh N, Kashfi K, Jeddi S, Ghasemi A, Physiology E, Sciences B, et al. (2020). Review article : ovariectomised rat model of osteoporosis. EXCLI Journal, 19:89–107.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.