Removal of Mimosine from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Seeds to Increase Their Benefits as Nutraceuticals
The Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit tree contains pharmacologically active compounds and can easily be found in abundant quantities. The utilization of this tree as a source of nutraceuticals would increase its value. The extraction yields show the number of compounds that have been extracted by solvent. However, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit seeds also contain mimosine, which can cause hair loss. The present study investigated the process of removing mimosine from the seeds. Three treatments were applied to these seeds: treatment without soaking, soaking with distilled water for 24 hours, and splitting the seeds in half and then soaking with distilled water for 24 hours. The seeds were dried, ground, and then extracted with different concentrations of ethanol solvent. The mimosine levels of the extracts were measured with a JascoV-730 spectrophotometer using ferry chloride as a reagent. The results showed that the soaking process and the concentration of ethanol had significant effects on the extract yields and mimosine levels. The unsoaked seeds, extracted with 70% ethanol, produced the highest ratio of extract yield to mimosine level. Therefore, 70% ethanol can be used as a solvent to utilize unsoaked seeds as nutraceuticals.
Abdelhady, N., & Abdallah, G. (2016). HPLC/MS/MS study of phenolic compounds of Leucaena leucocephala Legumes monitored with their in vitro antihyperglycemic activity. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 17(4), 1–9.
Adaramola, B & Onigbinde, A. (2016). Effect of extraction solvent on the phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of Clove Bud. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), 11 (3), 33-38.
Azwanida NN. (2015). A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 04(03), 3–8.
Chahyono, T. B., Maulani, A., Ridwan, M., & Syarifah, A. N. (2012). Antidiabetic drug ethyl acetate fraction of Leucaena leucocephala seed extract in wistar aloxan induced. In: Proceeding of Conference Research and Application on Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Health Care (TCAM), Surakarta Indonesia, June 22nd-23rd :181–186.
Chanchay., N & Poosaran., N. (2009). The reduction of mimosine and tannin contents in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry. Special Issue, S137-S144.
Chen, C.Y., & Wang, Y.D. (2010). Polyprenol from the whole plants of Leucaena leucocephala. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1(March), 70–72.
Devadasu, V.R., Deb, P.K., Maheshwari, R., Sharma, P., & Tekade, R.K. (2018). Physicochemical, pharmaceutical, and biological considerations in GIT absorption of drugs. In: Tekade RK, editor. Dosage form consideration. Vol. 1. London: Academic Press. p. 150–175.
Duarte-Trujillo, A.S., Jiménez-Forero, J.A., Pineda-Insuasti, J., González-Trujillo, C.A., & Garcia-Juarez, M. (2019). Extraction of bioactive substances from Pleurotus ostreatus (Pleurotaceae) by dynamic maceration. Acta Biologica Colombiana. 25(1), 61–74.
El Harith, E.A., Szyszka, M., Günther, K.D., & Meulen, U.T. (1987). A method for large scale extraction of mimosine. Journal Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 57(1): 105-110.
Gamal-eldeen, A.M., Amer, H., Helmy, W.A., Ragab, H.M., & Talaat, R.M. (2007). Antiproliferative and cancer-chemopreventive properties of sulfated glycosylated extract derived from Leucaena . Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 69 (6): 805-811.
Halliday, M. J., Padmanabha, J., Mcsweeney, C. S., Kerven, G., & Shelton, H. M. A. X. (2013). Leucaena toxicity : a new perspective on the most widely used forage tree legume. Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicalles, 1, 1–11.
Hassan, R. A., Tawfik, W. A., & Abou-setta, L.M. (2014). The flavonoid constitunts of Leucaena leucocephala growing in Egypt and their biological activity. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 11(1), 67–72.
Honda, M. D. H., & Borthakur, D. (2019). Mimosine concentration in Leucaena leucocephala under various environmental conditions. Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales, 7(2), 164–172.
Ilham, Z., Hamidon, H., Rosji, N. A., Ramli, N., & Osman, N. (2015). Extraction and quantification of toxic compound mimosine from Leucaena leucocephala Leaves. Procedia Chemistry, 16, 164–170. Koli, P., Bhardwaj, N. R., & Kautkar, S. (2018). Mimosine: a toxic chemical for livestock feed. Popular Kheti, 6(1), 146–149.
Li, H.T., Ruan, S.W., Huang, J.C., Chen, H.L., & Chen, C.Y. (2012). Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor from Leucaena leucocephala. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(77), 14182–14185.
Nguyen, B. C. Q., & Tawata, S. (2016). The chemistry and biological activities of mimosine : A Review. Phytotherapy Research, 30, 1230-1242.
Nursiwi, A., Ishartani, D., Sari, A. M., & Nisyah, K. (2018). Study on Leucaena leocochepala seed during fermentation : sensory characteristic and changes on anti nutritional compounds and mimosine level. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 102(1). 1-7.
Oreopoulou, A., Tsimogiannis, D., & Oreopoulou, V. (2019). Extraction of polyphenols from aromatic and medicinal plants: an overview of the methods and the effect of extraction parameters. Polyphenols in Plants, 243–259.
Ospina-Daza, L.A., Buitrago-Guillen, M.E., & Vargas-Sánchez, J.E. 2017. Identification and degradation of mimosine, a toxic compound in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Pastos y Forrajes. 40 (4). 241-248.
Plaza, M., & Turner, C. (2015). Trends in analytical chemistry pressurized hot water extraction of bioactives. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 71, 39–54.
Płotka-Wasylka J., Rutkowska M., Owczarek K., Tobiszewski M., & Namieśnik J. (2017). Extraction with environmentally friendly solvents. Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 91, 12-25.
Ramezanzadeh, M., Bahlakeh, G., Sanaei, Z., & Ramezanzadeh, B. (2019). Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M HCl solution by ethanolic extract of eco-friendly Mangifera indica (mango) leaves: Electrochemical, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo and ab initio study. Applied Surface Science, 463,1058-1077.
Ramli, N. (2019). Extraction of mimosine from dried leaves and defatted seed of Leucaena leucocephala and its biodiesel oxidative stability. Master’s thesis, University of Malaya.
Rodriguez, M.B., Sandoval-Castro, C. A., Soloria-sanchez, J., Sarmiento-Franco, L. A., Rojas-Harrera, R., & Klieve, A.V. (2014). Leucaena leucocephala in ruminant nutrition. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 17, 173–183.
Sahid, I., Ishak, M. S., & Bajrai, F. S. (2017). Quantification and herbicidal activity of mimosine from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 62–67.
She, L. C., Liu, C. M., Chen, C. T., Li, H. T., Li, W. J., & Chen, C. Y. (2017). The anti-cancer and anti-metastasis effects of phytochemical constituents from Leucaena leucocephala. Biomedical Research (India), 28(7), 2893–2897.
Shi, J., Yu, J., Pohorly, J., Young, J. C., Bryan, M., & Wu, Y. (2003). Optimization of the extraction of polyphenols from grape seed meal by aqueous ethanol solution. Food, Agriculture & Environmental, 1(2), 42–47.
Soedarjo, M., & Borthakur, D. (1996). Simple procedures to remove mimosine from young leaves, pods and seeds of Leucaena leucocephala used as food. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 31(1), 97–103.
Soetjipto H., Pradana R.C., Kristijanto, A.Ign. (2019). Fatty acid composition & total lipid content of the seed oil of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering,509, 012046.
Suryanti, V., Marliyana, S. D., & Putri, H. E. (2016). Effect of germination on antioxidant activity, total phenolics, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol contents of lead tree sprouts (Leucaena leucocephala (lmk.) de Wit). International Food Research Journal, 23(1), 167–172.
Suvachittanont, W., Kurashima, Y., Esumi, H., & Tsuda, M. (1996). Formation of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (thioproline), an effective nitrite-trapping agent in human body, in Parkia speciosa seeds and other edible leguminous seeds in Thailand. Food Chemistry, 55(4), 359–363.
Syamsudin, Sumarny, R., & Simanjuntak, P. (2010). Antidiabetic activity of active fractions of Leucaena Leucocephala (lmk) Dewit seeds in experiment model. European Journal of Scientific Research, 43(3), 384–391.
Veerakumari, L. (2015). Botanical anthelmintics. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 6(10), 1881-1894.
Verma, G., & Mishra, M. (2018). Development and optimization of uv-vis spectroscopy - a review. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 7(11), 1170–1180.
Wan Ahmad, W.N.A, Mahmod, N.H., & Ali, A.M. (2019). A Review of Medicinal Plants and Daily Foods used in Southeast Asia Possessing Antidiabetic Activity. Journal of Agrobiotechnology, 10(1), 17–35.
Wardatun, S., Harahap, Y., Mun’im, A., Saputri, F.C., & Sutandyo, N. (2020). Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit seeds: a new potential source of sulfhydryl compounds. Pharmacognosy Journal, 12(2), 298-302.
Xu, M., Ran, L., Chen, N., Fan, X., Ren, D., & Yi, L. (2019). Polarity-dependent extraction of flavonoids from citrus peel waste using a tailor-made deep eutectic solvent. Food Chemistry, 297, 124970.
Xuan, T.D., Elzaawely, A.A., Deba,F., Fukuta, M., & Tawata, S. (2006). Mimosine in Leucaena as a potent bio-herbicide. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences/INRA, 26 (2). 89-97.
Yeop, A., Pang, S. F., Law, W. P., Yusoff, M. M., & Gimbun, J. (2019). Assessment of size reduction and extraction methods on the yield of gallic acid from Labisia pumila leaf via microstructures analysis. Materials Today: Proceedings, 19, 1280–1286.
Yulianthi, N.N.S., Suhendra, l., & Wrasiati, L.P. (2017). Pengaruh perbandingan jenis pelarut terhadap kandungan senyawa total fenol, α-tokoferol, dan total karotenoid ekstrak Sargassum polycystum. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri, 5(4), 1-10.
Wardatun, Sri; Harahap, Yahdiana; Mun'im, Abdul; Saputri, Fadlina Chany Dr.; and Sutandyo, Noorwati
"Removal of Mimosine from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Seeds to Increase Their Benefits as Nutraceuticals,"
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research: Vol. 7:
3, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/psr/vol7/iss3/6
Natural Products Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Commons, Other Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Commons