Background: There is much interest in formulating botanical materials into tablets due to the compactness and ease of administration. However, tableting of coarse milled botanical materials poses a challenge due to poor tableting properties. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of wet granulation to produce tablets from coarse milled botanical materials and to assess the effect of formulation on properties of the tablets. Materials and Methods: Cinnamon bark and areca nut were milled to obtain 1–2 mm particle size, which was subsequently used in wet granulation using maltodextrin solution as a granulating liquid. Two diluents were tried; microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or mannitol at a different ratio to the botanical materials. Tablets were then produced from the granules and evaluated for tensile strength and surface roughness. Results: Tablets formulated with MCC had higher tensile strength than tablets formulated with mannitol. Additionally, granules prepared using mannitol were more friable than those with MCC. The effect of diluent to botanical material ratio was more prominently observed on tablet surface roughness. Tablets containing a higher ratio of botanical material had a rougher surface, which could have implications on the mouth-feel of the tablets. Conclusion: Wet granulation could be a viable pre-processing method to produce tablets from coarse milled botanical materials.
Alamgir, A. N. M. (2017). Herbal drugs: their collection, preservation, and preparation; evaluation, quality control, and standardization of herbal drugs Therapeutic use of medicinal plants and their extracts: volume 1: Pharmacognosy (pp. 453-495). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Badawy, S. I., Narang, A. S., LaMarche, K., Subramanian, G., & Varia, S. A. (2012). Mechanistic basis for the effects of process parameters on quality attributes in high shear wet granulation. International journal of pharmaceutics, 439(1-2), 324-333.
Bernatoniene, J., Petkeviciute, Z., Kalveniene, Z., Masteikova, R., Draksiene, G., Muselik, J., . . . & Savickas, A. (2010). The investigation of phenolic compounds and technological properties of Leonurus, Crataegus and Ginkgo extracts. Journal of medicinal plants research, 4(10), 925-931.
Chandira, M., & Jayakar, B. (2010). Formulation and evaluation of herbal tablets containing Ipomoea Digitata Linn. extract. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences review and research, 3(1), 101-109.
Chime, S. A., Ugwuoke, E. C., Onyishi, I. V., Brown, S. A., & Onunkwo, G. C. (2013). Formulation and evaluation of Alstonia boonei stem bark powder tablets. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 75(2), 226- 230.
Cvetanovic, A., S, M., Zekovic, Z., Ž, L., Vidovic, S., & Radojković, M. (2011). Antioxidant properties of tablets prepared from ginkgo, chinacea and mentha dry extracts. Romanian biotechnological letters, 16, 6481-6487.
Fayed, M. H., Abddel-Rahman, S. I., Alanazi, F. K. Ahmed, M. O., Tawfeek, H. M., & Ai-Shedfat, R. I. (2017). High-shear granulation process: influence of processing parameters on critical quality attributes of acetaminophen granules and tablets using design of experiment approach. Acta poloniae pharmaceutica - drug research, 74(1), 235-248.
Ilic, I., Govedarica, B., Sibanc, R., Dreu, R., & Srcic, S. (2013). Deformation properties of pharmaceutical excipients determined using an in-die and out-die method. International journal of pharmaceutics, 446(1- 2), 6-15.
Li, Z., Wu, F., Zhao, L., Lin, X., Shen, L., & Feng, Y. (2018). Evaluation of fundamental and functional properties of natural plant product powders for direct compaction based on multivariate statistical analysis. Advanced powder technology, 29(11), 2881-2894.
Pandey, P., Tao, J., Chaudhury, A., Ramachandran, R., Gao, J. Z., & Bindra, D. S. (2013). A combined experimental and modeling approach to study the effects of high-shear wet granulation process parameters on granule characteristics. Pharmaceutical development and technology, 18(1), 210-224.
Parikh, D. M. (2016). Granulation of plant products and nutraceuticals. Handbook of pharmaceutical granulation, 349-363.
Qusaj, Y., Leng, A., Alshihabi, F., Krasniqi, B., & Vandamme, T. (2012). Development strategies for herbal products reducing the influence of natural variance in dry mass on tableting properties and tablet characteristics. Pharmaceutics, 4(4), 501-516.
Rahmanian, N., Naji, A., & Ghadiri, M. (2011). Effects of process parameters on granules properties produced in a high shear granulator. Chemical engineering research and design, 89(5), 512-518.
Rowe, R. C., Sheskey, P. J., & Quinn, M. E. (2009). Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients R. C. Rowe, P. J. Sheskey & M. E. Quinn. (Eds.)
Santl, M., Ilic, I., Vrecer, F., & Baumgartner, S. (2011). A compressibility and compactibility study of real tableting mixtures: the impact of wet and dry granulation versus a direct tableting mixture. International journal of pharmaceutics, 414(1-2), 131-139.
Shanmugam, S. (2015). Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses. Bioimpacts, 5(1), 55-63.
Sun, F., Xu, B., Zhang, Y., Dai, S., Yang, C., Cui, X., . . . & Qiao, Y. (2016). Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets. Drug design development and therapy, 10, 3909- 3924.
Tarlier, N., Soulairol, I., Sanchez-Ballester, N., Baylac, G., Aubert, A., Lefevre, P., . . . & Sharkawi, T. (2018). Deformation behavior of crystallized mannitol during compression using a rotary tablet press simulator. International journal of pharmaceutics, 547(1-2), 142- 149.
Yi, W., & Wetzstein, H. Y. (2011). Effects of drying and extraction conditions on the biochemical activity of selected herbs. HortScience, 46(1), 70-73.
Veronica, Natalia; Ang, Xiu Hui; Ooi, Shing Ming; Liew, Celine Valeria; and Heng, Paul Wan Sia
"A Study on The Formulation of Plant Matrix Tablets From Coarse Botanical Materials Using Cinnamon Bark and Areca Nut as The Model Botanical Materials,"
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research: Vol. 7
, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/psr/vol7/iss2/2