This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of Curcuma zanthorrhiza crude extract after encapsulated in nanocrystalline starch, and to investigate the effect of the ratio of nanocrystalline starches and maltodextrin; and the effect of concentration of temulawak extract on nanocapsule characteristics, as well as encapsulation effect on the stability of antioxidant activity. Preparation of nanocrystalline starch was conducted by using lintnerization and ethanol precipitation of cassava and sago starches. Nanocrystalline starch and maltodextrin were used as matrices with the ratio varied from 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25. The mixture of temulawak extract and matrices were homogenized and spray dried. Nanocapsules characteristics included the efficiency of encapsulation and drug loading, and antioxidant activity test were investigated. Nanocrystalline cassava and sago starches were potentially modified starch that can be used as the matrix for its low solubility and digestibility. It showed that the ratio of nanocrystalline starch, maltodextrin, and concentration of temulawak extract significantly influenced the nanocapsule characteristics. The best encapsulation condition obtained for nanocrystalline matrix from cassava starch with the ratio of nanocrystalline starch: maltodextrin 25:75 (%w/w) and 10% concentration of the temulawak extract, while for sago are 75:25 (%w/w) and 10% concentration of temulawak extract. Nanocrystalline matrix from cassava starch revealed higher encapsulation efficiency and antioxidant activity. The use of high temperatures during spray drying affected by the slight decline of antioxidant activity of encapsulated temulawak extract. Encapsulation of temulawak extract by using nanocrystalline starch and maltodextrin could retain and protect its antioxidant activity.
Anderson, A.K., Guraya, H.S., James, C., & Salvaggio, L. 2002. Digestibility and pasting properties of rice starch heat-moisture treated at the melting temperature (tm). Starch, 54, 401–409.
Barros, F.A.R.D & Stringheta, P.C. 2006. Microencapsulamento de antocianinas – uma alternativa para o aumento de sua aplicabilidade como ingrediente alimentício. Biotecnologia Ciência e Desenvolvimento, 36, 18-24.
Dhillon, N., Anggarwal, B.B., Newman, R.A., Wolff, R.A., Kunnumakkara, A.B., Abbruzzese, J.L., Ng, C.S., Badmaev, V., & Kurzrock, R. (2008). Phase II clinical trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24(18), 141–151.
Gallant, D., Bouchet, B., & Baldwin, P. 1997. Microscopy of starch: evidence of a new level of granule organization. Carbohydrate Polymer, 60, 379-389.
Garcia, A.M., Borrelli, L.A, Rozkalne, A., Hyman, B.T., & Bacskai, B.J. 2007. Curcumin labels amyloid pathology in vivo, disrupts existing plaques, and partially rest.ores distorted neurites in an Alzheimer mouse model. Journal of Neurochemistry, 102, 1095–1104.
Herdini, Darusman, L.K., & Sugita, P. 2010. Disolusi mikroenkapsulasi kurkumin tersalut gel kitosan-alginat-glutaraldehida. Jurnal Makara Sains, 14(1), 57-62.
Lin, C.C., Lin, H.Y., Chen, H.C., Yu, M.W., & Lee, M.H. 2009. Stability and characterization of phospholipid-based curcumin-encapsulated microemulsions. Journal of Food Chemistry, 116, 923-928.
Mirjazani F., Rafati, H., & Atyabi, F. 2010. Fabrication of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co- glycolide) nanoparticles containing tamoxifen citrate. Iranian Polymer Journal, 19(6), 437-446.
Molyneux, P. (2004). The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 26(2), 211-219.
Paramera, E.I., Konteles, S.J., & Karathanos, V.T. 2011. Stability and release properties of curcumin encapsulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ß-cyclodextrin, and modified starch. Journal of Food Chemistry, 125, 913-922.
Peppas, N.A., Vakkalanka, S., Brazel, C.S., Luttrell, A.S., & Mongia, N.K. 1996. Controlled release system using swellable random and block copolymers and terpolymers. In Ogata, N., Kim, S.W., Feijen, J., Okano, T. Editor. Advance Biomaterials in Biomedical Engineering and Drug Delivery System, Springer. pp 3-6.
Perez, L.A.B., Acevedo, E.A., Hernandez, L.S., & Lopez, O.P. 1999. Isolation and partial characterization of banana starch. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47, 854-857.
Rafati, H., Coombes, A.G.A., Adler, J., Holland, J., & Davis, S.S. 1997. Protein-loaded poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles for oral administration: formulation, structural and release characteristics. Journal of Controlled Release, 43, 89-102.
Sharma, R.A., McLelland, H.R., Hill, K.A., Ireson, C.R., Euden, S.A., Manson, M.M., Pirmohamed, M., Marnett, L.J., Gescher, A.J., & Steward, W.P. 2001. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 7, 1894–1900.
Shoskes, D., Lapierre, C., Cruz-Correa, M., Muruve, N., Rosario, R., Fromkin, B., Braun, M., & Copley, J. 2005. Beneficial effects of the bioflavonoids curcumin and quercetin on early function incadaveric renal transplantation: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Transplantation, 80, 1556-1559
Srichuwong, S., Sunarti, T.C., Mishima, T., Isono, N., & Hisamatsu, M. 2005. Starches from different botanical sources I: Contribution of amylopectin fine structure to thermal properties and enzyme digestibility. Carbohydrate Polymer, 60, 529-538.
Srihari, E., Lingganingrum, F.S., Hervita, R., & Wijaya, H. 2010. Pengaruh penambahan maltodekstrin pada pembuatan santan kelapa bubuk. Seminar Rekayasa Kimia dan Proses. ISSN : 1411- 4216. Universitas Diponegoro Semarang.
Wang, Y., Lu, Z., Lv, F., & Bie, X. 2009. Study on microencapsulation of curcumin pigments by spray drying. European Food Research and Technology, 229, 391-396.
Winarti, C., Sunarti, T.C., Mangunwidjaja, D., & Richana, N. 2014. Preparation of arrowroot starch nanoparticles by butanol-complex precipitation, and its application as bioactive encapsulation matrix. International Food Research Journal, 21(6), 2207-2213.
Sunarti, Titi Candra; Pasaribu, Fatimah J.; and Winarti, Christina
"Encapsulation of Temulawak Extract by Using Nanocrystalline Cassava and Sago Starches and Maltodextrin,"
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research: Vol. 7
, Article 10.
Available at: https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/psr/vol7/iss1/10