Plants have been used in traditional medicine in different parts of the world to treat several diseases. Many studies have confirmed their medicinal values, which have led to the isolation and characterization of various potential drug candidates. This study focuses on the antimicrobial activity of crude fractions of Gossypium barbadense leaves and the isolation of active compound. The pulverized plant leave was soaked in ethanol (98% v/v), and a solvent-based fractionation was carried out using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The obtained crude fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity against four (4) clinical isolates: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. NMR and FTIR analyses of the most active fraction were carried out. The ethanol fraction showed the highest extraction yield and premier antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. At 500 mg/mL, the fraction showed inhibition of 28.50±1.14, 26.40±1.46, 21.00±0.05 and 18.03±0.41 mm against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans respectively. The lower Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 12.5 mg/mL were obtained against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. NMR and FTIR analyses revealed that the isolated compound is stigmasterol, which is known to possess antimicrobial properties. However, compounds that were not isolated could have also contributed significantly to the antimicrobial activities of the fraction. Results of this study justifies the use of leaves extract of Gossypium barbadense as an antimicrobial agent.


Agbor, A.M. (2015). Methanol extracts of medicinal plants used for oral healthcare in Cameroon. Biochemistry & Pharmacology (Los Angeles), 4(164), 2167-0501

Ahmed, Y., Rahman, S., Akhtar, P., Islam, F., Rahman, M., &Yaakob, Z. (2013). Isolation of steroids from n-hexane extract of the leaves of Saurauiaroxburghii. International Food Research Journal, 20(5), 2939.

Akor, J. S., & Anjorin, T. S. (2009). Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Commiphora africana root extracts. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 11(6), 795-797.

Albuquerque, U. P. D., & Hanazaki, N. (2006). Ethnodirected research in the discovery of new drugs of medical and pharmaceutical interest: flaws and perspectives. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 16, 678-689.

Ansell, M. P., & Mwaikambo, L. Y. (2009). The structure of cotton and other plant fibres. In Handbook of textile fibre structure (pp. 62-94). Woodhead Publishing.

Azwanida, N. N. (2015). A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 4(196), 2167-0412.

Brito, R., Silva, G., Farias, T., Ferreira, P., & Ferreira, S. (2017). Standardization of the safety level of the use of DMSO in viability assays in bacterial cells.

CLSI (2018). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard—12th ed. M02-A13. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA, USA.

CLSI (2021). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, M100, 31st ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA, USA.

Daboor, S. M., & Haroon, A. M. (2012). In vitro: Antimicrobial potential and phytochemical screening of some Egyptian aquatic plants. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 38(4), 233-239.

Das, K., Tiwari, R. K. S., & Shrivastava, D. K. (2010). Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agents: Current methods and future trends. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(2), 104- 111.

Essien, E. E., Aboaba, S. O., & Ogunw, I. A. (2011). Constituents and antimicrobial properties of the leaf essential oil of Gossypium barbadense (Linn.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(5), 702-705.

Eugene, I., Cecelia, I., Olufunso, A., Chukwuemeka A. (2012). Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extract of dried fresh Gossypium barbadense leaves. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Science, 2, 13.

Filipe, C., Silva, R., Miranda, A., Oliveira, AP, Silva, BM, Sousa, JC, & Cerqueira, F. (2008). Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of cydonia oblonga miller leaves

Idowu, T. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Adesanya, S. A., Onawunmi, G. O., Osungunna, M. O., Obuotor, E. M., & Abegaz, B. M. (2016). Isolation and characterization of chemical constituents from Chrysophyllumalbidum G. Don-Holl. stem-bark extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 13(5), 182-189.

Ikobi, E., Awodele, O., Azubuike, C., & Campus, M. (2012). Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extract of dried fresh Gossypium barbadense leaves. Asian Journal of Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(13), 32–37.

Ingle, K. P., Deshmukh, A. G., Padole, D. A., Dudhare, M. S., Moharil, M. P., & Khelurkar, V. C. (2017). Phytochemicals: Extraction methods, identification and detection of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6(1), 32-36.

Iyamah, P. C., & Idu, M. (2015). Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 173, 287-302.

Kamboj, A., & Saluja, A. K. (2011). Isolation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(1), 94-96

Laxminarayan, R., Duse, A., Wattal, C., Zaidi, A. K., Wertheim, H. F., Sumpradit, N., & Cars, O. (2013) Antibiotic resistance –the need for global solutions. The Lancet Infectious Disease, 13(12), 1057-1098.

Li, Y., Ghasemi Naghdi, F., Garg, S., Adarme-Vega, T. C., Thurecht, K. J., Ghafor, W. A., & Schenk, P. M. (2014). A comparative study: The impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research. Microbial Cell Factories, 13(1), 1-9.

Liu, W. J. (Ed.). (2011). Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Methods: Identification, Analysis, Bioassay, and Pharmaceutical and Clinical Studies. John Wiley & Sons.

Macieira, R.V.S. (2013). Antibiotic properties of marine cyanobacteria: in search of new antibiotics.

Muhammad, Z., Masanawa, A. A., & Pyeng, A. K. (2014). Phytochemical and mineral analysis of methanolic extract of Gossypium barbadense L. (Cotton leaves). Annals of Experimental Biology, 2(4), 11–15

Munita, J. M., & Arias, C. A. (2016). Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, 481-511.

Ofokansi, K. C., Attama, A. A., Uzor, P. F., & Ovri, M. O. (2013). Evaluation of the combined antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Phyllantus muellerianus with ciprofloxacin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology and Drug Resources, 2(1), 16.

Pandey, A., & Tripathi, S. (2014). Concept of standardization, extraction and pre-phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(5).

Pierre, L. L., & Moses, M. N. (2015). Isolation and characterisation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from Odontonema strictum (acanthaceae). Journal of Innovations in Pharmaceuticals and Biological Sciences, 2(1), 88-95.

Salako, O. A., & Awodele, O. (2012). Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Gossypium barbadense (Malvaeceae) in mice. Drugs and Therapy Studies, 2(1), e2-e2.

Talla, R. M., Jouda, J. B., Mbazoa, C. D., Kapche, G. D. W. F., Lenta, B. N., Sewald, N., & Wandji, J. (2021). Pentacyclic triterpenoids and other constituents isolated from the leaves of Gambeyala courtiana and their antibacterial activity. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 98, 104322.

The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (2013). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 3.1, 2013. Available at: http://www.eucast.org(last accessed August 16, 2013).

The European Committee onAntimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (2013). EUCAST Disk Diffusion Test Manual. v 3.0, 2013. Available at: http://www.eucast.org (last accessed August 16, 2013).

The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (2013). Reading guide. EUCAST disk diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. v 3.0, 2013. Available at: http://www.eucast.org (last accessed August 16, 2013).

Theuretzbacher, U., & Mouton, J. W. (2011). Update on antibacterial and antifungal drugs-can we master the resistance crisis?.Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 11(5), 429.

Tiwari, P., Kumar, B., Kaur, M., Kaur, G., & Kaur, H. (2011). Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia, 1(1), 98-106.

Velmurugan, C., Venkatesh, S., Sandhya, K., Lakshm,i B.S., Vardhan, R.R., & Sravanthi, B. (2012) Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Gossypium herbaceum. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology 1(1), 7-10.

Wen, L., Zhang, Z., Sun, D. W., Sivagnanam, S. P., & Tiwari, B. K. (2020). Combination of emerging technologies for the extraction of bioactive compounds. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 60(11), 1826-1841.

WHO Expert Committee on the Selection, Use of Essential Medicines & World Health Organization. (2014). The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines: Report of the WHO Expert Committee, 2013 (including the 18th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children) (Vol. 985). World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2021). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2021: addressing new and emerging products. World Health Organization.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.