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Abstract

The high of pH of jatropha fruit hulls causes the negative properties of particleboard made from this material. Adjusting the particle acidity and pressing conditions (temperature and time) is among the technical modifications available to improve this particleboard’s properties. Particle acidity has been adjusted in a previous research project, and immersing the particles in acetic acid was found to be the best treatment in this preliminary research. In order to improve the particleboard’s properties, an experiment was conducted to determine the best pressing temperature and time. The objective of the research was to evaluate the influence of pressing temperature and time on the physical and mechanical properties of the board. Jatropha fruit hulls were immersed in 1% acetic acid solution for 24 hours. UF resin was used as the adhesive in the amount of 10%. The pressing temperatures and times used in this research were 110 °C, 120 °C, and 130 °C for 8 and 10 minutes, respectively. The particleboards were tested to determine their physical and mechanical properties according to JIS A 5908-2003. The result showed that pressing at 130 °C for 10 minutes resulted in the best physical and mechanical properties. Increasing the pressing temperature at a constant time or increasing the pressing time at a constant temperature caused the particleboard to exhibit decreased water absorption. The thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the particleboard did not fulfil JIS A 5908-2003.

Bahasa Abstract

Pengaruh Suhu dan Waktu Pengempaan terhadap Kualitas Papan Partikel yang Terbuat dari Kulit Buah Jarak yang Diberi Perlakuan Asam. Tingginya pH kulit buah jarak berpengaruh negatif terhadap sifat papan partikel yang dihasilkan. Penyesuaian keasaman partikel dan kondisi pengempaan (suhu dan waktu kempa) merupakan teknik modifikasi untuk memperbaiki sifat papan partikel. Penyesuaian keasaman partikel telah dilakukan pada penelitian sebelumnya dimana perlakuan perendaman partikel dalam larutan asam asetat merupakan perlakuan yang terbaik. Dalam rangka memperbaiki sifat yang masih rendah perlu dilakukan percobaan untuk menentukan suhu dan waktu yang terbaik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh suhu dan waktu pengempaan terhadap sifat fisis dan mekanis papan. Kulit buah jarak direndam dalam larutan asam asetat 1% selama 24 jam. Kadar perekat UF yang digunakan sebesar 10%. Suhu dan waktu pengempaan yang diupergunakan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing adalah 110 °C, 120 °C, and 130 °C selama 8 dan 10 menit. Pengujian sifat fisis dan mekanis papan partikel mengacu pada standar JIS A 5908-2003. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu 130 °C selama 10 menit menghasilkan sifat fisis dan mekanis yang terbaik. Peningkatan suhu pengempaan pada waktu yang sama atau peningkatan waktu pengempaan pada suhu yang sama menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan daya serap air. Pengembangan tebal dan modulus elastisitas (MOE) papan partikel belum memenuhi standar A 5908-2003.

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