Illegal gold mining is a controversial activity. It provides livelihoods for rural communities in gold-rich areas and contributes to poverty alleviation; however, it also creates environmental devastation, losses to state revenue and often triggers social conflicts. Various eradication efforts have been made, ranging from persuasive approaches to harsh law enforcement involving the military and police, yet this illegal activity continues. This qualitative study aims to find and propose workable solutions to eradicate this activity, particularly in Indonesia. The study was conducted at two illegal- mining sites in Kalimantan, involving some 6,000 illegal-gold-miners. Data were collected through field observations and in-depth interviews with primary stakeholders, including authorities, perpetrators, and the community. The study identified eight sets of solutions to be implemented with an integrative approach, covering alternative livelihoods, cooperation and assistance, education and training, information dissemination, formalization, multi-sectoral collaboration, regulatory changes, and law enforcement. This paper contributes to model development in similar social circumstances and, in practice, provides workable solutions to illegal-gold-mining in other sites, particularly in Indonesia


Adu-Gyamfi, S.; Brenya, E.; and Abaka, E. (2016). Artisanal Mining and Its Ramifications on the People of Prestea. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences 8(1): 12-24. DOI:10.19026/crjbs.8.2693 ISSN: 2041-3238, e-ISSN: 2041-3246. © 2016 Maxwell Scientific Publication Corp.Andrew & Osei-Kojo, 2016

Arif, I. (2020). Emas Indonesia, PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Aspinall, C. (2001). Small-Scale Mining in Indonesia. Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development, Edition September 2001, No. 79 (p 4), International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and Word Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Retrieved from:http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc /download;jsessionid=64CCCC5A7BB81C2AE3D2A4744D02ADA? doi=10.1. 1.466.559&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Balifokus (2015). International mercury treaty enabling activities program (IMEP). Retrieved from: http://www.ipwn.org/

Banchirigah, S.M. (2008). Challenges with eradicating illegal mining in Ghana: A perspective from the grassroots. Resources Policy, Vol. 33 (1) p. 29-38.

Banchirigah, S.M., Hilson, G. (2009), “Deagrarianization, re-agrarianization and local economic development: Re-orientating livelihoods in African artisanal mining communities”, Springer Science and Business Media, LLC. 2009. Published online 17 May 2009.

Basu, N.; Clarke, E.; Green, A.; Calys-Tagoe, B.; Chan, L.; Dzodzomenyo, M.; Fobil, J.; Long, R.; N.; Neitzel, R. L.; Obiri, S.; Odei, E.; Ovadje, L.; Quansah, R.; Rajaee, M.; Wilson, M. L. (2015). Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana, Part 1: Human health review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5143-5176; doi: 10.3390/ijerph120505143.

Boadi, S.; Nsor, C.A.; Antobre, O.O.; and Acquah, E. (2016). An analysis of illegal mining on the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana: Implications on community livelihood. Journal of Sustainable Mining. Vol. 15(3) pp 115 – 119. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsm.2016.12.001.

Buxton, A. (2013). Responding to the challenge of ASM: How can knowledge networks help? International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and Word Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Available at: https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/16532IIED.pdf

Carson, M., Cottrell, S., Dickman, J., Gummerson, E., Lee, T., Miao, Y., Teranishi, N., Tully, C., Uregian, C. (2005). Managing Mineral Resources Through Public–Private Partnerships: Mitigating Conflict in Ghanaian Gold Mining. Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton, NJ.

Crawford, G. and Botchwey, G. (2017). Conflict, collusion and corruption in small-scale gold mining: Chinese miners and the state in Ghana. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics. Vo. 55(4). DOI: 10.1080/14662043.2017.1283479.

Creswell, J.W. (2014), Research Design (4th ed.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Edi, Ashari Cahyo (2014). Cross-sector Partnerships Models in Corporate Social Responsibility to Implement Poverty Reduction Initiatives in Indonesia. International Journal of Administrative Science & Organization, Vol. 21 No. 2.

Gunawan, A. (2015). Illegal mining causing over Rp. 80 t in losses. The Jakarta Post, 05 May 2015. Available at: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/05/05/illegal-mining-causing-over-rp-80t-losses.htm.

Hasibuan, O.P.; Tjakraatmadja, J.H.; and Sunitiyoso, Y. (2020), Illegal gold mining in Indonesia: structure and causes. International Journal of Emerging Markets. DOI 10.1108/IJOEM-11-2019-0964

Hidayati, N.D. (2011). Pattern of corporate social responsibility programs: a case study. Social Responsibility Journal. Vol. 7(1) pp. 104-117.

DOI: 10.1108/17471111111114576.

Hilson, G. (2007). What is wrong with the Global Support Facility for small-scale mining? School of Agriculture, Policy and Development. The University of Reading, Earley Gate, UK. Progress in Development Studies 7(3)235–49 journals.sagepub.com/ doi/abs/10.1177/ 146499340700700304.

Hope, C. (2009). The Motivating Factors in starting a business and the creation of Rural Entrepreneurial Attitude in the under 30s. Nuffield Farming Scholarships Trust Report an Oxford Farming Conference Award.

International Labour Organization (1999). Social and labour issues in small-scale mines. Report for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on Social and Labour Issues in Small-scale Mines, Geneva, 17-21 May 1999.

Ismawati, Y.; Petrilk, J.; DiGangi, J. (2013). Titik Rawan Merkuri di Indonesia, Situs PESK: Poboya dan Sekotong di Indonesia. Laporan Kampanye Bebas Merkuri IPEN. Available at: www.ipen.org/sites/default/files/t/.../pdfs/indonesia-report-id.pdf.

Ismawati, Y. (2014). Gold, Mercury, and the Next Minamata. The Indonesian Journal of Leadership, Policy, and World Affair. April – June 2014. Available at: www.sr-indonesia.com/in-the-journal/view/gold-mercury-and-the-next-minamata.

Kervankiran I.; Dziwornu MG; and Temurcin K. (2016). Illegal Mining as Threat to Sustainable Development in Ghana_A Political Ecology Approach. ZfWT, Vol. 8(3) pp. 173-191.

Lahiri-Dutt, K. (2006). 'May god give us chaos, so that we can plunder': A critique of 'resource curse' and conflict theories. Development, 49(3), 14-21.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave. development.1100268.

Lestari, N.I. (2007), Illegal Gold Mining in West Java – Can Antam’s Community Development Programs Win Over Cynical Locals?, Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Asia-Pacific Case Study Series, Case Study No.3.

Available at: asmasiapacific.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/ASMAP-CS3_Pongkor.pdf.

Marshall, B.G. and Veiga, M.M. (2017). Formalization of artisanal miners: Stop the train, we need to get off! The Extractive Industries and Society. Vol. 305.

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. Reprinted from English Edition by Harper & Row, Publisher 1954.

Mawowa, S. (2013). The Political Economy of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Central Zimbabwe. Journal of Southern African Studies. Vol. 39 (4) pp. 921-936.

DOI: 10.1080/03057070.2013.858540.

McMahon, G; Subdibko, E.R.; Aden, J.; Bouzaher, A.; Dore, G.; Kunanayagam, R. (2000). Mining and the Environment in Indonesia: Long Term Trends and Repercussions of the Asian Economic Crisis. Available at: https://commdev.org/userfiles/files/877_file_mining_and_the_environment.pdf.

Mkhize, M.C. (2017). Developing an integrated model for quelling illegal mining in South Africa. DOI 10.17159/2413-3108/2018/v0n61a1726.

Murung Raya Regency (2020). Murung Raya Regency in Figures 2020. BPS-Statistics of Murung Raya Regency. Publication Number: 62130.2002. ISSN: 2087-3972.

Nainggolan, H. (2015). Illegal Gold Mining Operations in Kalimantan Threaten Lives and The Environment. Available at: http://indonesiaexpat.biz/business-property/illegal-gold-mining-operations-in-kalimantan-threaten-lives-and-the-environment.

Nopriadi (2016). Solution on Handling of Illegal Gold Mining Activities in Kuantan Singingi Region. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences ISSN 0973-6077 Volume 11, Number 5 (2016), pp. 1213-1235 © Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com.

Persaud, A.W.; Telmer, K.H.; Costa, M.; Moore, M.L. (2017). Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Senegal: Livelihoods, Customary Authority, and Formalization. Society & Natural Resources, Vol. 30 (8) pp. 980-993. DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2016.1273417.

Regulation of the Minister of Trade No. 75/M-DAG/PER/10/2014 on the Second Amendment to Regulation of the Minister of Trade No. 44/M-DAG/PER/9/2009 on Procurement, Distribution, and Supervision of Hazardous Materials (2014), Secretariat General of the Ministry of Commerce, Minister of Trade of the Republic of Indonesia.

Richards, L. and Morse, J.M. (2013). Readme first for a user’s guide to qualitative methods. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California

Saptono, P.; Nafsiatun; Mintarsih, E.; and Najib, W. (2014). Mediation Concepts of Environmental Conflicts Caused By Illegal Gold Mining in West Kalimantan Indonesia. Intl. Conference on Advances in Environment, Agriculture, and Medical Science. Vol. 14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.01.012.

Saunders, M. and Lewis, P. (2012). Doing Research in Business and Management: An essential guide to planning your project. Pearson Education Ltd. Essex.

Setiadji, P. (2015), “Pertambangan Rakyat: Tinjauan Historis dan Legal dalam Persepsi Akademisi”, http://www.kompasiana.com/makime/pertambangan-rakyat-tinjauan-historis-dan-legal-dalam-persepsi-akademisi_54f950b4a333110a068b4ba2.

Spiegel, S., Keane, S., Metcalf, S., Veiga, M., Yassi, A. (2015). Implications of the Minamata Convention on Mercury for informal gold mining in Sub-Saharan Africa: from global policy debates to grassroots implementation? Environment, Development and Sustainability. Vol. 17 (4) pp. 765-785. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-014-9574-1.

Spiegel, S. (2016). Land and ‘space’ for regulating artisanal mining in Cambodia: Visualizing an environmental governance conundrum in contested territory. Land Use Policy. Vol. 54 pp. 559-573. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.03.015.

Spiegel, S.J. ; Agrawal, S.; Mikha, D.; Vitamerry, K.; Le Billon, P.; Veiga, M.; Konolius, K.; Paul, B. (2018). Phasing Out Mercury? Ecological Economics and Indonesia's Small-Scale Gold Mining Sector. Ecological Economics. Vol. 144 pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon. 2017.07.025.

Subiman, N.I.L. and Resosudarmo, B.P. (2010). Tambang Untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat: Konflik dan Usaha Penyelesaiannya. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/256007489_Tambang_Untuk_Kesejahteraan_Rakyat_Konflik_Dan_Usaha_Penyelesaianya.

Tschakert, P. (2009). Recognizing and nurturing artisanal mining as a viable livelihood. Resources Policy. Vol. 34 (1-2) pp. 24-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2008.05.007.

Veiga, M. M.; Angeloci, G.; Hitch, M.; Velasquez-Lopez, P.C. (2014). Processing centres in artisanal gold mining. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 64 pp. 535-544. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.015.

Verbrugge, B. (2016). Voices from below: Artisanal- and small-scale mining as a product and catalyst of rural transformation. Journal of Rural Studies. Vol. 47. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.07.025.

Verbrugge, B. and Besmanos, B. (2016). Formalizing artisanal and small-scale mining: Whither the workforce? Resources Policy. Vol. 47. DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2016.01.008.

Welker, M.A. (2009), “Corporate Security Begins in the Community: Mining, the Corporate Social Responsibility Industry and Environmental Advocacy in Indonesia”, Cornell University.

Zvarivadza, T. (2018), “Artisanal and small-scale mining as a challenge and possible contributor to sustainable development”, Resource Policy, Vol. 56, available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol. 2018.01.009.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.