Antropologi Indonesia


The Forest Ecosystem Restoration (FER) project is a technological-science attempt to restore the damaged landscape as part of the environmental crisis mitigation. To some extent, the adoption of FER has also altered forest land use practices adopted by rural farmers as part of their livelihood. In rural-urban perspective, FER projects might be considered as a process of transferring environmental burdens from urban-downstream to rural-upstream communities living in the watershed areas. Our qualitative research in two FER project Puncak and Lombok, however, demonstrates how multiple actors, including local communities, actively influence the crisis defining process throughout problematization, mediation, apprehension stages. Such a procedure is crucial in the transition from horticulture to agroforestry system, the perceived solution for the “negotiated” crisis. We argue that the discourse of environmental crisis is co-produced, negotiated, and being effectively used in mobilizing funds, scientific research, and technology to change the practices of rural farmers. With its embedded social-oriented procedure, FER project has capacity to enable the creation of a new socioecological landscape that can mitigate the environmental calamities in downstream urban area while benefiting the economy of farmers in the upstream rural area. By highlighting such a potentiality, this article shows the significance of integrating social, economy, and ecological approaches in dealing with environmental problems at the local level and might be essential in dealing with climate change challenges.


Abidin, H. Z., Andreas, H., Gumilar, I., & Wibowo, I. R. R. (2015). On correlation between urban development, land subsidence and flooding phenomena in Jakarta. IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports, 370, 15–20.

Acciaioli, G., and Afiff, S. (2018). Neoliberal conservation in central Kalimantan, Indonesia: Evaluating the approach to environmental education of the transnational conservation organisation Rare Indonesia and the Malay. World, 46(136), 241–262.

Adams, C., Rodrigues, S. T., Calmon, M., & Kumar, C. (2016). Impacts of large-scale forest restoration on socioeconomic status and local livelihoods: what we know and do not know. Biotropica, 48(6), 731–744.

Agrawal, A. (2005). Environmentality: Community, intimate government, and the making of environmental subjects in Kumaon, India. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 161–190.

Andersson, E., Brogaard, S., and Olsson, L. (2011). The Political Ecology of Land Degradation. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour., 36, 295–319.

Bae, J., Kim, C., Kim, Y., Latifah, S., Afifi, M., Fisher, L. A., Lee, S., Kim, I.-A., JinTaek, K., RaeHyun, K., & JeongSoo, K. (2014). Opportunities for implementing REDD+ to enhance sustainable forest management and improve livelihoods in Lombok, NTB, Indonesia. CIFOR Working Paper (Issue 151).

Bakhtiar, I., Sanyoto, R., Berliani, H., Suwito, & Hardiyanto, G. (2015). Upaya KPH Mengurai Sengketa. Jakarta: Kemitraan.

Blaikie, P. (1995). Changing Environments or Changing Views? A Political Ecology for Developing Countries. Geography. vol. 80 (3), 203–214.

Blaikie, P. M., & Muldavin, J. S. S. (2004). Upstream, Downstream, China, India: The Politics of Environment in the Himalayan Region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94(3), 520–548.

Buergin, R. (2016). Ecosystem Restoration Concessions in Indonesia: Conflicts and Discourses. Critical Asian Studies, 48(2), 278–301.

Charnley S, Poe MR. 2007. Community forestry in theory and practice: Where are we now? Annual Review of Anthropology 36:301-336

DeFries, R. S., Rudle, T., Uriarte, M., & Hansen, M. (2010). Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience, 3, 178–181.

Devine, J. A., and Baca, J. A. (2020). The Political Forest in the Era of Green Neoliberalism. Antipode, 52(4), 911–927.

Emam, A. R., Mishra, B. K., Kumar, P., Masago, Y., & Fukushi, K. (2016). Impact Assessment of Climate and Land-Use Changes on Flooding Behavior in the Upper Ciliwung River, Jakarta, Indonesia. Water, 8(559), 1–10.

Escobar, A. (1999). After Nature: Steps to an Antiessentialist. Current Anthropology, 40(1), 1–30.

FAO. (2013). Payments for watershed services in Lombok, Indonesia: Uncovering actors’ strategies in a “success” story. Project Report. Unpublished.

Firman, T. (2000). Rural to urban land conversion in Indonesia during boom and bust periods. Land Use Policy. 17, 13–20.

Firman, T., Surbakti, I. M., Idroes, I. C., & Simarmata, H. A. (2011). Potential climate-change related vulnerabilities in Jakarta: Challenges and current status. Habitat International, 35(2), 372–378.

Fox, H., and Cundill, G. (2018). Towards increased community-engaged ecological restoration: A review of current practice and future directions. Ecological Restoration, 36(3), 208–218.

Gunawan, Restu (2010). Gagalnya sistem kanal: pengendalian banjir Jakarta dari Masa ke Masa. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas.

Higgs, E. (2003). Nature by Design: people, natural process, and ecological restoration. MIT Press.

Hildanus, Tarigan, S. D., and Barus, B. (2022). Detection and monitoring forest degradation and rehabilitation in the Upper Ciliwung watershed using Landsat TC. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 959(1), 1–9.

Hirsch, P., and Warren, C. (2003). Introduction: through the environmental looking glass: the politics of resources and resistance in Southeast Asia. In P. Hirsch and C. Warren (Eds.), The Politics of Environment in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge.

Ingold, T. (1993). The temporality of the landscape. World Archaeology, 25(2), 152–174.

Janowski, M., and Ingold, T. (2012). Imagining landscapes: Past, present and future. In M. Janowski & T. Ingold (Eds.), Anthropological Studies of Creativity and Perception (pp. 1–169). ASHGATE.

Kim, Y. S., Latifah, S., Afifi, M., Mulligan, M., Burk, S., Fisher, L., Siwicka, E., Remoundou, K., Christie, M., Masek Lopez, S., & Jenness, J. (2018). Managing forests for global and local ecosystem services: A case study of carbon, water and livelihoods from eastern Indonesia. Ecosystem Services, 31, 153–168.

Lamb, D., Erskine, P. D., and Parrotta, J. A. (2005). Restoration of degraded tropical forest landscapes. Science, 310(5754), 1628–1632.

Li, T. M. (2002). Proses Transformasi Daerah Pedalaman di Indonesia. Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

Lynch, K. (2005). Rural Urban Interaction in the Developing World Perspectives in Development. London: Routledge.


Markum, Setiawan, B., and Sabani, R. (2014). Hutan Kemasyarakatan, sebuah ikhtiar mewujudkan hutan lestari masyarakat sejahtera. Balai Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai Dodokan Moyosari Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat.

Martin, D. M. (2017). Ecological restoration should be redefined for the twenty-first century. Restoration Ecology, 25(5), 668–673.

McElwee, P. D. (2016). Forest Are Gold: Trees, People, and Environmental Rule in Vietnam. University of Washington Press.

Moore, J. W. (2016). Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism. In J. W. Moore (Ed.), Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism (pp. 1–13). PM Press.

Peluso, N. L., and Ribot, J. (2020). Postscript : A Theory of Access Revisited. Society & Natural Resources, 33(2), 300–306.

Pirard, R., Buren, G. de, and Lapeyre, R. (2014). Do PES Improve the governance of forest restoration? Forests, 5(3), 404–424.

Reyes-García, V., Fernández-Llamazares, Á., McElwee, P., Molnár, Z., Öllerer, K., Wilson, S. J., & Brondizio, E. S. (2019). The contributions of Indigenous Peoples and local communities to ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology, 27(1), 3–8.

Riggs, R. A., Sayer, J., Margules, C., Boedhihartono, A. K., Langston, J. D., & Sutanto, H. (2016). Forest tenure and conflict in Indonesia: Contested rights in Rempek Village, Lombok. Land Use Policy, 57, 241–249.

Robbins, P. (2012). Political ecology : a critical introduction. Wiley-Blackwell.

Salim, W., Bettinger, K., and Fisher, M. R. (2019). Maladaptation on the Waterfront: Jakarta’s Growth Coalition and the Great Garuda. Environment and Urbanization Asia, 10(1), 63–80.

Sundjaya, & Santosa, A. (2017). Hutan Kemasyarakatan, belajar dari petani di Lombok Tengah. Project Report. GAIA: Unpublished.

Syakur, M. (editor). (2012). Resolusi Konflik di KPH: Pembelajaran dari KPH Register 47 dan Rinjani Barat. Working Group on Forest Land Tenure.

Umrani, R., & Jain, C. K. (2010). Agroforestry: Systems and Practices. Jaipur: Oxford Book Company.

Uprety, Y., Asselin, H., Bergeron, Y., Doyon, F., & Boucher, J. F. (2012). Contribution of traditional knowledge to ecological restoration: Practices and applications. Ecoscience, 19(3), 225–237.

Widianingsih, N. N., Theilade, I., & Pouliot, M. (2016). Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(9).