Antropologi Indonesia


Following the proliferation of digital media usage, the world has seen an increasing amount of digitally-mediated lives in everyday contexts. While anthropological scholarship has started to address this ever-growing subject, anthropologists are mainly preoccupied with human engagements in virtual worlds that have their own tangible and embodied sense of spatiality (e.g., online role-playing and gaming communities). In so doing, anthropologists have yet to comprehensively delve into online practices in more disembodied and intangible networked environments like Facebook. In this article, I examine methodological challenges faced by anthropologists who study online communities in such disembodied worlds. I draw on my ongoing online ethnographic research on a community of Indonesian Muslims with same-sex attraction who believe their sexuality is a divine test from God and actively build an online community on Facebook and other social media platforms (e.g., OORTH, WhatsApp, and Zoom) to reform themselves into heterosexuals. Unable to fully submerge in the world of their interlocutors through sensorial approaches and embodying practices as conventional ethnographers do, anthropologists who study online communities on social media platforms like Facebook may encounter an impasse in their ethnographic observations. Reflecting on this impasse, I argue that anthropological inquiries have to be reoriented and go beyond the framework of sensorial observation and embodying practices. Even though such methodological reorientation might require anthropological knowledge to be partial and incomplete, this is necessary to fully capture what it means to be human in the disembodied and intangible virtual worlds.


Ardhianto, Imam 2017 ‘Kontra Publik Keagamaan dalam Media Baru: Islam, Kebudayaan Populer, dan Media Sosial pada Gerakan #IndonesiaTanpaJIL’, Antropologi Indonesia 37(2):83-102. 2020 ‘Mereimajinasi Metodologi dan Mengatasi Sains Fiksi: Pendekatan-Pendekatan dalam Antropologi terhadap Fenomena Mediasi Digital’, Human Narratives 1(2):66-75. Bleek, Wolf 1987 ‘Lying Informants: A fieldwork Experience from Ghana’, Population and Development Review 13(2):314-322. Bocharova, T. A. dan L. E. Blyakher 2013 ‘Virtuality as a Part of Everyday Life’, Bulletin of PNU 31(4):255-262. Boellstorff, Tom, Bonnie Nardi, Celia Pearce dan Tina L. Taylor 2012 Ethnography and Virtual Worlds. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Boellstorff, Tom 2016 ‘For Whom the Ontology Turns: Theorizing the Digital Real’, Current Anthropology 57(4):387-407. Boellstorff, Tom 2015 Coming of Age in Second Life. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Carter, Denise 2005 ‘Living in Virtual Communities: An Ethnography of Human Relationships in Cyberspace’, Information, Community and Society 8(2):148-167. Castelfranchi, Cristiano dan Yao-Hua Tan (peny.) 2001 Trust and Deception in Virtual Societies. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Clifford, James 1997 ‘Spatial Practices: Field work, Travel, and the Disciplining of Anthropology’, dalam Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1986 ‘On Ethnographic Allegory’, dalam James Clifford dan George E. Marcus (peny.) Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press. Hlm. 98-121. Donath, Judith S. 1998 ‘Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community’, M.A. Smith dan P. Kollock (peny.) Communities in Cyberspace. London: Routledge. Hlm. 29-59. Eichhorn, Kate 2001 ‘Sites Unseen: Ethnographic Research in a Textual Community’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 14(4):565-578. Elmaresa, Maria Vina 2019 ‘Meme as Media Practice: Seeing Its Usage on Twitter during the 2017 DKI Jakarta Gubernatorial Election’, makalah dipresentasikan dalam 7th International Symposium of Journal Antropologi Indonesia. Escobar, Arturo, David Hess, Isabel Licha, Will Sibley, Marilyn Strathern dan Judith Sutz 1994 ‘Welcome to Cyberia: Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture [and Comments and Reply]’, Current Anthropology 35(3):211-231. Febrian 2014 ‘Fleksibilitas Interpretasi Penggunaan Meme para Mememaker 1CAK.COM’, tesis master Universitas Indonesia. Depok: Universitas Indonesia. Febrianti, Dita Suci 2018 ‘Praktik Bermedia dalam Akun-akun Berbeda, Sebuah Kajian terhadap Penggunaan Main dan Second Account Instagram’, skripsi sarjana Universitas Indonesia. Depok: Universitas Indonesia. Grimshaw, Anna 2001 The Ethnographer’s Eye: Ways of Seeing in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gupta, Akhil dan James Ferguson. 1977 One. Discipline and Practice: “The Field” as Site, Method, and Location in Anthropology. California: University of California Press. Haraway, Donna 1988 Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective’, Feminist studies 14(3):575-599. Harding, Sandra G. 1986 The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Hargyono, Sindhunata 2014 ‘Ideological War in Inclusive Twitter:# IndonesiaTanpaJIL versus Jaringan Islam Liberal’, Antropologi Indonesia 34(2):113-123. Highmore, Ben 2007 ‘An Epistemological Awakening: Michel de Certeau and the Writing of Culture’, Social Anthropology 15(1):13-26. Hine, Christine 2017 ‘From Virtual Ethnography to the Embedded, Embodied, Everyday Internet’, dalam Larissa Hjorth, Heather Horst, Anne Galloway, dan Genevieve Bell (peny.) The Routledge Companion to Digital Ethnography. London: Routledge. Hlm. 47-54. Hine, Christine 2008 ‘Virtual Ethnography: Modes, Varieties, Affordances’, dalam Perti Alasutari, Leonard Bickman, dan Julia Brannen (peny.) The Sage Handbook of Online Research Methods. London: Sage. Hlm. 257-270. Hoag, Colin 2011 ‘Assembling Partial Perspectives: Thoughts on the Anthropology of Bureaucracy’, PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 34(1):81-94. Hooi, Rosalie dan Hichang Cho 2013 ‘Deception in Avatar-Mediated Virtual Environment’, Computers in Human Behavior 29(1):276-284. Ingold, Tim 2017 ‘Anthropology Contra Ethnography’, HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 7(1):21-26. Jay, Martin 1991 ‘The Disenchantment of the Eye: Surrealism and the Crisis of Occularcentrism’, Visual Anthropology Review 7(1):15-38. Kasniyah, Naniek 2005 ‘Antropologi Pasca “Pembangunan”: Dimensi Antropologi Terapan’, Humaniora 17(3):293-300. Khumairoh, Izmy 2018 ‘Instadakwah: Redefinisi Kesalehan Perempuan Muslim di Bandung lewat Mediatisasi Ajaran Agama Islam di Instagram’, disertasi doktoral Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada. Kohn, Eduardo 2013 How Forests Think. California: University of California Press. Konečný, Štěpán. ‘ 2009 ‘Virtual Environment and Lying: Perspective of Czech Adolescents and Young Adults’, Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace 3(2). Kozinets, Robert V. 2010 Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. London: Sage. 2015 Netnography: Redefined. London: Sage. Lauckner, Carolyn, Natalia Truszczynski, Danielle Lambert, Varsha Kottamasu, Saher Meherally, Anne Marie Schipani-McLaughlin, Erica Taylor dan Nathan Hansen 2019 ‘“Catfishing,” Cyberbullying, and Coercion: An Exploration of the Risks Associated with Dating App Use among Rural Sexual Minority Males’, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health 23(3):289-306. Long, Nicholas, Edward M. Bruner dan Nayanika Mookherjee 2009 ‘Discussion Point: When Informants Lie’, The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology 29(3):85-94. Marzali, Amri 2000 ‘Pendidikan Antropologi dan Pembangunan Indonesia’, Antropologi Indonesia 62:96-107. McCosker, Anthony, Kath Albury, Tinonee Pym, Paul Byron dan Kane Race 2019 ‘Swiping, Stealthing and Catfishing: Dating and Hookup Apps in the Media’, laporan penelitian. Diakses dari https://researchbank.swinburne.edu.au/items/f981c4ff-f0eb-4ba4-9429-ef5498d3f30d/1/ Metcalf, Peter 2003 They Lie, We Lie: Getting on with Anthropology. London: Routledge. Miller, Daniel 2011 Tales from Facebook. Cambridge: Polity. Monaghan, Lee F. 2006 ‘Fieldwork and the Body: Reflections on an Embodied Ethnography’, dalam D. Hobbs dan R. Wright (peny.) The Sage Handbook of Fieldwork. London: Sage. Hlm. 225-242. Mukaromah, Kholila. 2020 ‘Wacana Kesetaraan Gender dalam Meme Hadis: Studi Etnografi Virtual pada Akun Instagram @mubadalah.id’, Mutawatir: Jurnal Keilmuan Tafsir Hadith 10(2):292-320. Nardi, Bonnie A. 1996 ‘Cyberspace, Anthropological Theory, and the Training of Anthropologists’, Social Science Computer Review 14(1):34-35. Nardi, Bonnie 2010 My Life as a Night Elf Priest: An Anthropological Account of World of Warcraft. Michigan: University of Michigan Press. 2015 ‘Virtuality’, Annual Review of Anthropology 44:15-31. Otto, Ton dan Nils Bubandt (peny.) 2011 Experiments in Holism: Theory and Practice in Contemporary Anthropology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Pink, Sarah, Heather Horst, John Postill, Larissa Hjorth, Tania Lewis dan Jo Tacchi 2015 Digital Ethnography: Principles and Practice. London: Sage. Pink, Sarah 2016 ‘Digital ethnography’, dalam Sebastian Kubitschko dan Anne Kaun (peny.) Innovative Methods in Media and Communication Research. New York: Springer. Hlm. 161-165. Rifan, Tri Yulianto. 2020 ‘Dakwah Digital: Studi Etnografi Virtual Akun Instagram @Edhnx’ disertasi doktoral Institut Agama Islam Negeri Purwokerto. Purwokerto: Institut Agama Islam Negeri Purwokerto. Rogers, Richard 2009 The End of the Virtual: Digital Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Salamone, Frank A. 1977 ‘The Methodological Significance of the Lying Informant’, Anthropological Quarterly 50(3):117-124. Saleh, Elizabeth 2017 ‘A Tangled Web of Lies: Reflections on Ethnographic Fieldwork with Syrian Turkmen Women on the Side of a Road in Beirut’, Contemporary Levant 2(1):55-60. Simmons, Mariah dan Joon Suk Lee 2020 ‘Catfishing: A Look into Online Dating and Impersonation’, dalam prosiding International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. London: Springer. Hlm. 349-358. Sirait, Amelia Rugun 2021 ‘Spectactorial Sisterhood: Relasi Sosial Pengguna Second Account di Instagram’, Antropologi Indonesia 42(1):34-48. Siregar, Leonard 2002 ‘Antropologi dan Konsep Kebudayaan’, Jurnal Antropologi Papua 1(1):1-12. Skultans, Vieda 2005 ‘Varieties of Deception and Distrust: Moral Dilemmas in the Ethnography of Psychiatry’, Health 9(4):491-512. Strathern, Marilyn 2020 Relations: An Anthropological Account. Durnham: Duke University Press. Swasono, Meutia Farida Hatta 2020 ‘Meningkatkan Peran Nasional Antropologi’, makalah dipresentasikan dalam Seminar Nasional dan Pra Lokakarya ADJASI 2018. Syawbriyanti, Fanny 2021 ‘Ideologi Bahasa dan Diskursus Identitas dalam Permainan Roleplay Bilingual di Twitter’, Antropologi Indonesia 42(1):1. Turkle, Sherry 1996 ‘Working on Identity in Virtual Space’, dalam Debra Grodin dan Thomas R. Lindlof (peny.) Constructing the Self in a Mediated World. London: Sage. Hlm. 156-176. 2005 The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Turner, Aaron 2000 ‘Embodied Ethnography. Doing Culture’, Social Anthropology 8(1):51-60. Willerslev, Rane 2007 ‘To Have the World at a Distance’: Reconsidering the Significance of Vision for Social Anthropology’, dalam Cristina Grasseni (peny.) Skilled Visions: Between Apprenticeship and Standards. New York: Berghahn. Hlm. 23-46. Wiranata, I. Gede AB. 2011 Antropologi Budaya. Bandung: Citra Aditya Bakti. Zeitlyn, David 2009 ‘Understanding Anthropological Understanding: For a Merological Anthropology’, Anthropological Theory 9(2):209-231.

Included in

Anthropology Commons