Arus Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF) memicu kekhawatiran dunia, termasuk negara-negara di Asia Tenggara. Pada tahun 2017, Indonesia mengajukan inisiatif “Our Eyes” untuk menciptakan sebuah wadah bagi negara-negara ASEAN untuk bertukar informasi intelijen guna memberantas kegiatan terorisme transnasional. Inisiatif tersebut kemudian diubah menjadi “ASEAN Our Eyes” (AOE). Tetapi, beberapa tahun setelah dibentuknya inisiatif tersebut, terjadi peristiwa pengeboman gereja di Jolo, Filipina. Inisiden tersebut menunjukkan hambatan untuk mengimplementasikan inisiatif AOE. Pelaku diidentifikasi sebagai Warga Negara Indonesia yang berhasil masuk ke Filipina berkat bantuan jaringan teroris lokal di Filipina. Idealnya, inisiatif AOE dapat mencegah serangan tersebut. Artikel ini akan mendiskusikan dinamika domestik di Indonesia dan Filipina mengingat pentingnya memahami dinamika lokal nasional sebelum menilai efektivitas dari sebuah inisiatif di tingkat kawasan. Kajian ini menggunakan konsep resistansi birokrasi untuk memahami karakeristik dari organisasi intelijen di kedua negara. Tulisan ini mengidentifikasi potensi kebocoran informasi dan budaya patron-klien yang menghambat pertukaran informasi intelijen antar organisasi intelijen. Sulit untuk mengharapkan terciptanya sebuah pusat data intelijen terintegrasi di tingkat kawasan apabila proses pertukaran informasi tidak terjadi di tingkat nasional atau lokal.

Bahasa Abstract

The flow of Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF) sparks concerns around the world, including Southeast Asian countries. In 2017, Indonesia proposed “Our Eyes” initiatives to create an intelligence-sharing platform among Southeast Asian countries to stave off the transnational terrorism. This initiative was later adopted as “ASEAN Our Eyes” (AOE). A few years later, however, the Jolo Church Bombing in the Philippines demonstrated the impediments to implementing the initiative. The perpetrators were identified as Indonesians who entered the Philippines through the assistance of local terrorist networks. Ideally, the initiative could have prevented the attack. This article will discuss the domestic dynamics in Indonesia and the Philippines since it is critical to understand the local dynamics in the region before assessing the effectiveness of regional initiatives. This study employs the concept of bureaucratic resistance to understand the nature of intelligence organisations in these two countries. It identifies the potential leakage of information and the perennial problem of patron-clientelism that hinder the relevant intelligence agencies in each country from sharing information with each other. We could not expect a well-integrated intelligence database in the region if the intelligence sharing between local agencies do not exist.


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