Eleusine indica Linn. Gaerth or Indian goose grass has been widely used as an alternative natural anti-hypertensive agent. However, the rationale behind this mechanism is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to confirm the presence of functional groups that may be responsible for its ACE inhibitory activity and its possible synergism. Each solvent-portioned fraction was analyzed by FTIR, individual ACE inhibitory activity, and combination of fractions. FTIR results of solvent- partitioned fractions revealed that O-H and C-H stretches were present in all fractions. In addition to this, C-O and C=O groups were also present in all fractions except in ethyl acetate. S=O groups were also present in chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions. Other function groups such as N-O and C=C groups were present in ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. The highest % inhibition obtained among the individual fraction is n-butanol at 96.031 % ± 0.004 at 500 ug/ml. The lowest % inhibition obtained among the individual fraction is chloroform at 32.544 % ± 0.011 at 500 ug/ml. The highest % inhibition among the combined fractions is ethyl acetate:butanol at 95.727% ± 20.847, while the lowest % inhibition in combination is hexane:chloroform at 89.626 % ± 19.577. The fraction with the lowest IC50 is hexane at 15.357, while the highest IC50 is chloroform at 168.207 ug/ml. Functional group present may be associated with the antihypertensive activity of the E. indica extracts. The more polar solvent-partitioned fractions of E. indica has a higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to its less polar solvent- partitioned fractions. The higher ACE inhibitory activity may be associated with the secondary metabolites present in the more polar fractions. There is also possible synergism present in the combined solvent-partitioned fractions as their % inhibition is higher than their individual effects.
Ajiwe, I. O. (2015). Phytochemical and anti – microbial screening of the aerial parts of Eleusine indica, 3(1), 257–264.
Babu, R. H., & Savithramma, N. (2013). Phytochemical screening of underutilized species of Poaceae, 1(10), 947–951.
Bangalore, S., Fakheri, R., Toklu, B., & Messerli, F. H. (2016). Diabetes mellitus as a compelling indication for use of renin angiotensin system blockers: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ (Online), 352(December), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmj.i438
Barbosa-Filho, J. M., Martins, V. K. M., Rabelo, L. A., Moura, M. D., Silva, M. S., Cunha, V. L., ... Medeiros, I. A. (2006). Natural products inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). A review between 1980- 2000. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy (Vol. 16).
Cha, T. S., Najihah, M. G., Sahid, I. Bin, & Chuah, T. S. (2014). Molecular basis for resistance to ACCase- inhibiting fluazifop in Eleusine indica from Malaysia. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 111(1), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.04.011
Dojindo Laboratories. (2016). ACE Kit - WST Technical Manual, 29–30. Retrieved from https://www.dojindo. com/TechnicalManual/Manual_A502.pdf
Elbl G, Wagner H. A new method for the in vitro screening of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) using the cromophore and fluorophore labelled substrate, dansyltriglycine. Planta Medica,
57(2), 137-141. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960050
Ettebong, E. O., Nwafor, P. A., & Okokon, J. E. (2012). In vivo antiplasmodial activities of ethanolic exract and fractions of Eleucine indica. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 5(9), 673–676. https://doi. org/10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60105-9
Guleria, S. (2017). Assessment of Synergy, 1–6. Retrieved from http://www.remedypublications.com/ pharmacology-and-pharmaceutics/articles/pdfs_folder/ app-v2-id1086.pdf
Hassan, S. M. (2015). Detection of hypertension among cardiac diseases inpatients at Kirkuk City Hospitals . Iraqi National Journal of Nursing Specialties (Vol. 28).
Iberahim, R., Yaacob, W. A., & Ibrahim, N. (2015). Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau). AIP Conference Proceedings, 1678(August 2016). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4931234
Nakamura, M., Ra, J., Jee, Y., & Kim, J. (2016). ScienceDirect Impact of different partitioned solvents on chemical composition and bioavailability of Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai leaf extract. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25(2), 316–326. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.08.006
Ocana, A., Amir, E., Princess, T., Hospital, M., & Seruga, B. (2012). How valid are claims for synergy in published clinical studies?, (February). https://doi.org/10.1093/ annonc/mdr608
Quin, M., Garcia-vallve, S., & Pujadas, G. (2012). Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by flavonoids : Structure-activity relationship studies, 7(11), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049493
Responte, M. A., Dacar, M. R. B., Nuñeza, O. M., & Uy, M. M. (2015). Extracts of Eleusine indica, 7(2), 90–95.
Rohman, A., & Che, Y. B. (2012). Chemometrics and intelligent laboratory systems the chemometrics approach applied to FTIR spectral data for the analysis of rice bran oil in extra virgin olive oil. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 110(1), 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemolab.2011.10.010
Sharifi, N., Souri, E., Ziai, S., Amin, G., & Amanlou, M. (2013). Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21(1), 74. https://doi. org/10.1186/2008-2231-21-74
Steed, S., Marble, C., Boyd, N. S., Macrae, A., & Fnu, K. (n.d.). Biology and management of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) in ornamental plant production 1 other common names. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu.
Tallarida, R. J. (2001). Drug synergism: its detection and applications. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 298(3), 865–872. https:// doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M503833200
Tallarida, R. J. (2006). An Overview of Drug Combination Analysis with Isobolograms. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 319(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.106.104117
Tutor, J. T., & Chichioco-Hernandez, C. L. (2017). Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition of Fractions from Eleusine indica Leaf Extracts. Pharmacognosy Journal, 10(1), 25–28. https://doi.org/10.5530/ pj.2018.1.5
Yeligar, V. C. (2018a). World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research in-vivo diuretic and in-vitro anti-urolithiatic, (July 2017). https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpr20178-8978
Yeligar, V. C. (2018b). World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research In-vivo diuretic and in-vitro anti-urolithiatic, (August). https://doi.org/10.20959/wjpr20178-8978
World Health Organization. (2017, May 17). Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
World Health Organization. (2013). WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy. Retrieved from: http://www.searo. who.int/entity/health_situation_trends/who_trm_ strategy_2014-2023.pdf?ua=1
Cometa, Jade Celon; Mancol, Liahona Faith Roldan; Yen, Anthony Nalzaro; and Manlusoc, Joanne Katherine Talens
"ACE Inhibitory Activity and Functional Group Analysis of Solvent- Partitioned Fractions of Eleusine indica,"
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research: Vol. 7
, Article 8.
Available at: https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/psr/vol7/iss1/8