This research investigates how two movies, both entitled Ala Kachuu (2018 and 2002), represent ala kachuu, i.e. a tradition of bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan. Even though the Kyrgyz government has formally banned this practice since 2016, which is considered as a form of forced marriage, it still exists and is practiced by some Kyrgyz. This research used the qualitative method coupled with the mise-en-scène cinematographic technique. By using Stuart Hall’s representation theory (1997) and Mansour Fakih’s gender inequality theory (2008) as analysis tools, this study concludes that both movies represent ala kachuu as a tradition which promotes gender inequality. Moreover, they also represent it as a tradition that leads to various forms of violence against women in Kyrgyzstan.

Bahasa Abstract

Penelitianini menginvestigasi bagaimana film Alaa Kachuu (2008, dan 2020) merepresentasikan tradisi ala kachuu,sebuah tradisi penculikan perempuan untuk dijadikan isteri di Kirgizstan. Walaupun sejak tahun 2016 pemerintah Kirgizstan telah secara resmi melarang tradisi ini, yang dianggap sebagai bentuk pernikahan secara paksa, tradisi ala kachuuini masih tetap dilakukan dan disalah-artikan penggunaannya oleh sebagian masyarakat Kirgizstan. Penelitian film ini mengunakan metode kualitatif, dilengkapi dengan teknik sinematografi mise-en-scène. Melalui penerapan teori representasi Stuart Hall (1997) dan teori ketidaksetaraan gender Mansour Fakih (2008) sebagai pisau analisis, hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa kedua film merepresentasikan tradisi alaa kachuusebagai sebuah tradisi yang tidak berkesetaraan gender, dan menyebabkan hadirnya berbagai bentuk kekerasan pada kaum perempuan Kirgizstan.


Aisarakunova, Aizat. 2010. Globalization and Krygyz Traditional Culture. Central Asiatic Journal 54, no. 1: 1–11. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41928528.

Alymbekova, Aiperi. 2019. I never said “YES” The story of Aisuluu, a survivor of bride kidnapping. Unicef for Every Children: Europe and Central Asia, 26 November. https://www.unicef.org/eca/node/4731.

Asian Development Bank. 2019. Kyrgyz Republic Country Gender Assessment. http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/ TCS190593-2.

Borbieva, Noor O’Neill. 2012. Kidnapping Women: Discourses of Emotion and Social Change in the Kyrgyz Republic. Anthropological Quarterly 85, no. 1 (Winter): 141–169. https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/236695372_Kidnapping_Women_Discourses_of_Emotion_and_Social_Change_in_the_ Kyrgyz_Republic.

Bordwell, David dan Kristin Thompson. 2013. Film Art: An Introduction. Edisi ke-10. New York: McGraw–Hill.

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. 2018. Report of the inquiry concerning the Kyrgyz Republic under article 8 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations: United Nations Human Rights.

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 2017. Bride Kidnapping in The Kyrgyz Republic. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 29 Agustus. https://www.csce.gov/international-impact/bride-kidnapping-kyrgyz-republic#:~:text=Each%20year%20in%20Kyrgyzstan%2C%20 an,are%20raped%20in%20the%20process (diakses pada 17 Maret 2022).

Creswell, John W. 2009. Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Edisi ke-3. California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Elfira, Mina. 2021. Gender dan Budaya Patriaki. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEAVxQVA6Q8.

Fakih, Mansour. 2008. Analisis Gender dan Transformasi Sosial. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Hall, Stuart, ed. 1997. Representation: Cultural Representation and Signifying Practices. London, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications in association with the Open University.

Hiro, Dilip. 2009. Inside Central Asia: A Political and cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Iran. New York: Overlook Duckworth.

Human Right Watch. 2006. Kyrgyzstan: Bride-kidnapping, Domestic Abuse Rampant, 26 September. https:// www.hrw.org/reports/2006/kyrgyzstan0906/3.htm#_ftn347 (diakses pada 14 Maret 2022).

Hussain, Nadia Shahanaz. 2012. Ala Kachuu: The Kidnapping of a Woman’s Choice. The Platform, 24 Januari. http://www.the-platform.org.uk/2012/01/24/ala-kachuu-the-kidnapping-of-a-woman%E2%80%99s-choice/.

Kim, Elena dan Frank G. Karoris. 2021. Bound to be grooms: the imbrication of economy, ecology, and bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan. Gender, Place, and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 28, no. 11: 1627–1648. doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2020.1829561.

Kleinbach, Russell, Mehrigul Ablezova, dan Medina Aitieva. 2005. Kidnapping for marriage (ala kachuu) in a Kyrgyz village. Central Asian Survey 24, no. 2: 191–202. doi:10.1080/02634930500155138.

Lathrop, B. Gail dan David O. Sutton. 2013. Elements of mis-en-scene. Film Study Journal 2, 1–7. http:// www. proseproductionsink.com/1102_Licata_ Elements_of_Mise-en-scene_modified.pdf.

Muktarbek kyzy, Akylai. 2016. Gender Aspects of the Households’ Saving Behavior in the Kyrgyz Republic. National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic, Working paper no. 1, 18 Juni. SSRN. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2903948. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2903948.

Minority Rights Group International. 2018. Minorities and indigenous peoples in Kyrgyzstan. Refworld: UNHCR, Maret. https://www.minorityrights.org/country/kyrgyzstan.

Pramaggiore, Maria T. dan Tom Wallis. 2008. Film: A Critical Introduction. Edisi ke-2. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Pratto, Felicia dan Andrew L. Stewart. 2011. Social dominance theory. Dalam The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, ed. D.J. Christie. DOI:10.1002/9780470672532.wbepp253.

Ridgeway, Cecilia L. dan Lynn Smith-Lovin. 1999. The gender system and Interaction. Annual Review of Sociology 25, (Agustus): 191–216. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.191.

Shils, Edward. 1971. Tradition. Comparative Studies in Society and History 13, no. 2: 122–159. doi:10.1017/ s0010417500006186.

Steiner, Susan dan Charles M. Becker. 2019. How marriages based on bride capture differ: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan. Demographic Research 41, 579–592. https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/ vol41/20/default.htm.

Thieme, Susan. 2008. Living in Transition: How Kyrgyz Women Juggle Their Different Roles in a Multi-local Setting. Gender, Technology and Development 12, no. 3: 325–345. doi: 10.1177/097185240901200303.

Thompson, Roy dan Christopher J. Bowen. 2009. Grammar of the Shot. Edisi ke-2. New York: Focal Press is an imprint of Elsivier.

United Nations. 2022. End of mission statement by the Working Group on discrimination against women and girls visit to Kyrgyzstan. Statements and Speeches, 15 April. https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements-and-speeches/2022/04/end-mission-statement-working-group-discrimination-against-women.

UN Women. 2013. New law in Kyrgyzstan toughens penalties for bride kidnapping. UN Women, 6 Februari. https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/2/new-law-in-kyrgyzstan-toughens-penalties-for-bride-kidnapping.