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Abstract

Thermal decomposition of fish bones to obtain calcium oxide (CaO) was conducted at various temperatures of 400, 500, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The calcium oxide was then characterized using X-ray diffractometer, FTIR spectrophotometer, and SEM analysis. The calcium oxide obtained from the decomposition at 1000 °C was then used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Diffraction pattern of the calcium oxide produced from decomposition at 1000 °C showed a pattern similar to that of the calcium oxide produced by the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standard (JCDPS). The diffractions of 2q values at 1000 °C were 32.2, 37.3, 53.8, 64.1, and 67.3 deg. The FTIR spectrum of calcium oxide decomposed at 1000 °C has a specific vibration at wave-length 362 cm-1, which is similar to the specific vibration of Ca-O. SEM analysis of the calcium oxide indicated that the calcium oxide’s morphology shows a smaller size and a more homogeneous structure, compared to those of fish bones. The use of calcium oxide as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil resulted in iod number of 15.23 g/100 g KOH, density of 0.88 g/cm3, viscosity of 6.00 cSt, and fatty acid value of 0.56 mg/KOH. These characteristic values meet the National Standard of Indonesia (SNI) for biodiesel.

Bahasa Abstract

Karakterisasi dan Pemanfaatan Kalsium Oksida (CaO) Hasil Dekomposisi Termal Tulang Ikan sebagai Katalis Produksi Biodiesel dari Minyak Jelantah. Telah dilakukan dekomposisi termal kalsium oksida dari tulang ikan dengan variasi temperatur 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, dan 1100 °C. Kalsium oksida dikarakterisasi menggunakan difraktometer X-ray, spektrofotometer FTIR, dan analisis SEM. Kalsium oksida kemudian digunakan sebagai katalis untuk produksi biodiesel dari minyak jelantah. Pola difraksi kalsium oksida hasil dekomposisi pada temperatur dekomposisi 1000 °C menunjukkan kemiripan dengan kalsium oksida dari komite bersama standar difraksi padatan (JCPDS). Difraksi pada nilai 2q hasil dekomposisi pada 1100 °C adalah sebesar 32,2; 37,3; 53,8; 64,1; dan 67,3. Spektra FTIR kalsium oksida hasil dekomposisi pada 1000 °C memiliki vibrasi spesifik pada bilangan gelombang 362 cm-1 yang mirip dengan vibrasi spesifik untuk Ca-O. Analisis SEM pada penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa morfologi kalsium oksida itu mempunyai ukuran yang lebih kecil dan struktur yang lebih homogen daripada tulang ikan. Penggunaan kalsium oksida dalam produksi biodiesel dari minyak jelantah menghasilkan bilangan iod 15,23 g/100 g KOH, densitas 0,88 g/cm3, viskositas 6,00 cSt, dan nilai asam lemak 0,56 mg/KOH. Nilai parameter biodiesel tersebut sesuai dengan standar nasional Indonesia (SNI) untuk biodiesel.

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