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Abstract

Gouda cheese analog (GCA) was made using soy protein isolate (SPI), skim milk powder (SMP), fat (palm fat and butter fat), and water (W) at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA) of GCA. The free fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF) produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF) produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF) and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

Bahasa Abstract

Sifat-sifat Fisik Kimiawi dan Sensori Keju Gouda Analog Berbasis Kedelai yang Terbuat dari Variasi Konsentrasi Lemak dan Sodium Sitrat dan Variasi Starter Culture. Gouda cheese analogue (GCA) diproduksi dengan menggunakan soya protein isolate (SPI) tepung susu skim (SMP) lemak (F) yaitu lemak nabati dan lemak butter dan air (W) dengan perbandingan optimal antara SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. Pengaruh lemak butter, sodium citrate, kultur starter keju pada sifat-sifat sensoris produk keju diuji dengan uji kesukaan, hedonic test, dan analisis profil tekstur (TPA) dari GCA. Asam lemak bebas, nitrogen terlarut air, penurunan nilai pH progel juga diukur. Penggunaan 100% lemak butter (BF) menghasilkan aroma gouda yang kuat. Ini disebabkan kandungan asam lemak dalam lemak butter, sebaliknya produk dengan 100% lemak nabati (PF) menghasilkan gouda yang hambar. Ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kandungan asam lemak dalam PF yang berupa rantai menengah dan rantai panjang. Kultur starter keju yang tunggal tidak dapat mengembangkan flavor gouda selama pemeraman. Penggunaan lemak campuran (50% BF dan 50% PF) dan kultur starter keju yang campuran bersama sama dengan Brevibacterium linens mengembangkan aroma karakteristik dari gouda selama pemeraman. Penambahan 0.5% sodium citrate dapat memperbaiki aroma namun hal ini mereduksi stabiltas tekstur produk.

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