Combustion of coal and co-combustion of their co-fuel contribute to gas emissions. Among the gas emissions are SOx, NOx, CO and CO2. Introduction of calcium based adsorbent is addressed to absorb SO2 that release to the atmosphere during the combustion process. Objective of the research is at first to observe the physical characteristics of biobriquettes as a function of briquette compositions (coal to palm kernel shell ratios) and Ca/S ratios (Ca in adsorbent and S in briquette) using a natural adsorbent (shellfish waste). The second objective is to investigate desulfurization characteristics as a function of Ca/S ratios and desulfurization temperatures at coal to palm kernel shell ratio of 90:10 (wt %). Ratios of coal to palm kernel shell in this study are 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50; and Ca/S ratios are 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, 1.75:1 and 2:1. Binding agent used is the mixture of Jatropha curcas seeds and starch as much as 10% (wt). It was found that introducing the palm kernel shell and adsorbents in the coal briquette affect the water resistant and compressive strength. The highest water resistance and compressive strength were 5,165 second and 34 kg/cm2, respectively. The lowest SO2 level found in this study was 1 ppm for all Ca/S ratios, except for 1:1.


K. Bunyakiat, S. Osuwan, A. Potjanart, Proceedings of the Third World Congress of Chem. Eng., Tokyo, Japan, 1995, p. 541.

K. Bunyakiat, S. Osuwan, A. Wuttimongkolchai, Proceedings of the Forth Asian Pacific Confederation of Chem. Eng. Congress, Singapore, 1995, p.95.

J.Z. Liu, Y.Q. Cao, X.H. Zhang, Power Eng. 12/2 (1992) 35 (in Chinese).

K. Kleisa, J. Lehmann, F. Verfuss, G. Simon, Glueckauf-Forschungshefte 55/4–5 (1994) 117.

S. Osuwan, K. Bunyakiat, D. Theerapabpisit, J. Sci. Soc. Thailand 15 (1995) 17.

C.M. Lu, S.Q. Cheng, Y.L. Shao, H.X. Zhao, H.Y. Gong, Proceeding of Int. Conference Energy Environ, New York, U.S.A., 1996, p.667.

I. Naruse, H. Kim, G. Lu, J. Yuan, K. Ohtake, Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion, Pittsburgh, U.S.A., 1998, p.2973.

G. Lu, H. Kim, J. Yuan, I. Naruse, K. Ohtake, M. Kamide, Energy Fuels 12/4 (1998) 689.

Y.Z. Ren, J.F. Dong, Y.Q. Cao, J.Q. Qian, J. Eng. Thermophys. 20/1 (1999) 125 (in Chinese).

J. Wang, S. Gao, W. Wang, K. Sakamoto, J. Aerosol Res. 14/2 (1999) 162.

Q. Wang, G. Lu, K. Sakamoto, T. Maruyama, H. Kim, I. Naruse, S. Hatakeyama, T. Mizoguchi, R. Luo, M. Kamide, J. Aerosol Res. 15/4 (2000) 364 (in Japanese).

G. Lu, Q. Wang, K. Sakamoto, H. Kim, I. Naruse, J. Yuan, T. Maruyama, M. Kamide, M. Sadakata, Energy Fuels 14/6 (2000) 1133.

K. Sakamoto, S. Gao, W. Wang, J. Wang, I. Watanabe, Q. Wang, J. Japan Soc. Atmospheric Env. 35/2 (2000) 124.

P. Siritheerasas, K. Bunyakiat, S. Osuwan, Thammasat Int. J. Sci. Technol. 5/2 (2000) 34.

X. Dong, K. Sakamoto, W. Wang, S. Gao, Y. Isobe, J. Env. Sci. 16/5 (2004) 705.

K. Yamada, A. Sorimachi, Q. Wang, J. Yi, S. Cheng, Y. Zhou, K. Sakamoto, Atmospheric Env. 42 (2008) 7924.

A.M. Fauzi, S.E. Agustina, J.I. Nugraheni, Industri: J. Ilmiah Sains dan Tek. 9/1 (2010) 75.

S. Yaman, M. Şahan, H. Haykiri-Açma, K. Şeşen, S. Küçükbayrak, Fuel Processing Technol. 72 (2001) 1.

N. Kaliyan, R.V. Morey, Biomass and Bioenergy 33 (2009) 337.

Mahidin, A. Gani, Subhan, F. Iznita, I. Agustina, Industri: J. Ilmiah Sains dan Tek. 10/1 (2011) 35.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.