Background: The global prevalence of periodontal disease is steadily rising. Early detection through the active screening of potential patients is important because periodontal disease leads to high disease, clinical, and economic burdens. The aim of this study is to develop a simple periodontal assessment tool for the Malay-speaking population; this tool is referred to in this work as MyGusi.

Methods: Translation and back-translation of a self-assessment tool containing 10 items related to periodontal health conditions and risk behaviors were conducted by three bilingual translators. Nine periodontists were selected to determine the content validity of the tool. After pre-testing for face validity, MyGusi was distributed to patients attending dental clinics in a public university in Kuala Lumpur. The Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE) of each patient was obtained from their dental records.

Results: The scale-content validity index of MyGusi was 0.92, which indicates good validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of the tool, and the value obtained (0.72) indicated acceptable reliability. The mean total MyGusi and BPE scores were positively correlated at 0.488 (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: MyGusi has good content validity and is positively correlated with BPE, an established periodontal screening tool.


1. Kumar S. Evidence-based update on diagnosis and management of gingivitis and periodontitis. Dent Clin North Am. 2019;63:69–81.

2. Kornman, KS. Mapping the pathogenesis of periodontitis: A new look. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1560–8.

3. Nazir M, Al-Ansari A, Al-Khalifa K, Alhareky M, Gaffar B, Almas K. Global prevalence of periodontal disease and lack of its surveillance. Sci World J. 2020;2146160.

4. Silva MF, Cademartori MG, Leite FRM, López R, Demarco FF, Nascimento GG. Is periodontitis associated with halitosis? A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2017;44:1003–9.

5. Parker ML, Thornton-Evans G, Wei L, Griffin SO. Prevalence of and changes in tooth loss among adults aged ≥50 years with selected chronic conditions–United States, 1999–2004 and 2011–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:641–6.

6. Arora H, Ivanovski S. Clinical and aesthetic outcomes of immediately placed single-tooth implants with immediate vs. delayed restoration in the anterior maxilla: A retrospective cohort study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2018;29:346–52.

7. Rosing K, Christensen LB, Øzhayat EB. Associations between tooth loss, prostheses and self-reported oral health, general health, socioeconomic position and satisfaction with life. J Oral Rehabil. 2019;46:1047–54.

8. Okamoto N, Amano N, Nakamura T, Yanagi M. Relationship between tooth loss, low masticatory ability, and nutritional indices in the elderly: A cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2019;19:110–9.

9. Beck JD, Papapanou PN, Philips KH, Offenbacher S. Periodontal Medicine: 100 Years of Progress. J Dent Res. 2019;98:1053–62.

10. Grocock R, Holden B, Robertson C. The missing piece of the body? Oral health knowledge and confidence of doctors. Br Dent J. 2019;226:427–31.

11. Shah DAI, Roslan N, Zamansari K Izzah, TMRahimi TNA, Ali MF, Rani H, et al. Oral health knowledge among healthcare professionals and their challenges in dealing with patients’ oral health problems. J Sains Kesihat Malaysia. 2020;18:39–47.

12. Institute for Public Health. National Health & Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2015) Vol III: Healthcare Demand. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2015.

13. Gilbert AD, Nuttall NM. Self-reporting of periodontal health status. Br Dent J. 1999;186:241–4.

14. Foster Page LA, Thomson WM, Broadbent JM. Validity of self-reported periodontal questions in a New Zealand cohort. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20:563–9.

15. Yamamoto T, Koyama R, Tamaki N, Maruyama T, Tomofuji T, Ekuni D, et al. Validity of a questionnaire for periodontitis screening of Japanese employees. J Occup Health. 2009;51:137–43.

16. Yusoff MSB. ABC of content validation and Content Validity Index calculation. Educ Med J. 2019;11:49–54.

17. The British Society of Periodontology. Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE). United Kingdom: The British Society of Periodontology, 2011.

18. Polit DF, Beck CT. The Content Validity Index: Are you sure you know what’s being reported? Critique and recommendations. Res Nurs Heal. 2006;29:489–97.

19. Richards D. Hygiene-therapists could be used to screen for dental caries and periodontal disease. Evid Based Dent. 2015;16:116–7.

20. Aslund M, Pjetursson B, Lang N. Measuring oral health-related quality-of-life using OHQoL-GE in periodontal patients presenting at the University of Berne, Switzerland. Oral Heal Prev Dent. 2008;6:191–7.

21. Abdullah N, Radzali N, Vaithilingam R. Oral health related quality of life and periodontal status of selected Malaysian population adults. Ann Dent Univ Malaya. 2018;20:16–23.

22. Oral Health Division Ministry of Health Malaysia. National Oral Health Survey of Adults (NOHSA 2010). Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Malaysia, 2013.

23. Blicher B, Joshipura K, Eke P. Validation of self-reported periodontal disease: A systematic review. J Dent Res. 2005;84:881–90.

24. Abbood HM, Hinz J, Cherukara G, Macfarlane TV. Validity of self-reported periodontal disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2016;87:1474–83.

25. Ubertalli, JT. GingivitisDental Disorders. New Jersey: MSD Manual Professional Edition, 2020.

26. Renatus A, Kottmann T, Schwarzenberger F, Jentsch H. Evaluation of a new self-reported tool for periodontitis screening. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2016;10:ZC107–12.

27. Mohd Dom TN, Ayob R, Abd Muttalib KA, Aljunid SM. National economic burden associated with management of periodontitis in Malaysia. Int J Dent. 2016;1891074.

28. Seuring T, Archangelidi O, Suhrcke M. The economic costs of type 2 diabetes: A global systematic review. Pharmacoeconomics. 2015;33:811–31.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.