This study discusses the security cooperation of the three countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. In particular, this paper elaborates on its role in the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) adopted by the European Union in responding to the Russia-Ukraine Conflict, 2014-2022. The method used in this research is qualitative with analytical descriptive. The research source uses secondary data in the form of literature review. This study is analyzed using the theory of Regional Security Complex (RSC) and the Concept of Cooperative Security. RSC theory is used to analyze the cooperation of Benelux as a regional power in developing European Union CFSP security cooperation. Result shows that Benelux is not brave enough to make a decision which is completely different from the EU public. The Benelux countries’ position is to agree with the EU's decision on the Russia-Ukraine war.

Bahasa Abstract

Penelitian ini membahas tentang kerjasama keamanan tiga negara yaitu Belgia, Belanda, dan Luksemburg. Secara khusus, makalah ini menguraikan perannya dalam Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) yang diadopsi oleh Uni Eropa dalam menanggapi Konflik Rusia-Ukraina, 2014-2022. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kualitatif dengan deskriptif analitis. Sumber penelitian menggunakan data sekunder berupa studi pustaka. Penelitian ini dianalisis dengan menggunakan teori Regional Security Complex (RSC) dan Konsep Cooperative Security. Teori RSC digunakan untuk menganalisis kerjasama Benelux sebagai kekuatan regional dalam mengembangkan kerjasama keamanan CFSP Uni Eropa. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa Benelux tidak cukup berani untuk mengambil keputusan yang sama sekali berbeda dengan publik UE. Posisi negara-negara Benelux adalah setuju dengan keputusan Uni Eropa tentang perang Rusia-Ukraina.



Journal Article

Duke, S. &.(2006). Administrative governance in the CFSP: Development and practice. European Foreign Affairs Review, 11(2), 163–182

Haugevik, K. (2017). Autonomy or integration? Small-state responses to a changing European security landscape. Global Affairs.

Hyde-Price, A. (2006). “Normative” power Europe: A realist critique. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), 217–234.

Keukeleire, S. (2003). The European Union as a diplomatic actor: Internal, traditional and structural diplomacy. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 14(3), 31–56.

Mihalka, M. (2005). Cooperative Security in the 21st Century. Connections , Vol. 4, No. 4 , 113-122. Published by: Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes.

Rieker, P. (2009). The EU: A capable security actor? Developing administrative capabilities. Journal of European Integration, 31, 703–719.

Samoy, A. G. (1981). La création de l’union économique Benelux. Studia Diplomatica , 179-198.


Buzan, B. O. (1998). Security: A new framework for analysis. Boulder, Clorado, and London, England.

Eyck, F. G. (1959). The Benelux Countries: An Historical Survey. Princeton: D. Van Notrand Company.

Hill, C. &. (2011). International relations and the European Union (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Jones, E. (2003). The Benelux Countries: Identity and Self-Interest. In e. Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne, Member States and the European Union . Oxford: Oxford University Press (forthcoming).

Jørgensen, K. A. (2015). SAGE handbook on European foreign policy. . Thousand Oaks

Katzenstein, P. (1985). Small States in World Markets: Industrial Policy in Europe. Ithaca:

Cornell University Press

March, J. G. (1995). Democratic governance. New York: The Free Press.

Milward, A. S. (1984). The Reconstruction of Western Europe: 1945-1951. London: Routledge.

Smith, K. (2014). European Union foreign policy in a changing world. London: Polity Press.London, UK.

Smith, M. E. (2004). Europe’s foreign and security policy: The institutionalization of cooperation. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Spaak, P. H. (1969). Combats inachevés: De l’indépendence à l’alliance. Brussels: Librairie Arthème Fayard.

Book chapter in an edited book

Buzan, B. &. (2003). Regions and Powers. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Van Roon, G. (1989). Small States in Years of Depression: The Oslo Alliance, 1930-1940. Assen: Van Gorcum.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.