December 2019 marks a change in the perception of security itself because the enemy is invisible in the form of a virus that can endanger human survival. In this article, the author wants to discuss changes in the perception of "threat" in security from a "visible" threat to an "invisible" threat. Library research was used by the author in this article. The author uses three concepts as the development of security, namely traditional security concept, non-traditional security concept, and national security concept to analyze the case. The findings show that invisible threat in the form of virus or pandemic does not need military readiness as in traditional security. It rather needs a good healthcare system as part of the national resilience of a country in facing threat.


Cecchine, G., & Moore, M. (2006). Infectious Disease and. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. Oche, O. (2010). Security, Globalization and Climate Change: A Conceptual Analysis. In O. C. Eze, & O. Oche, [ed] Climate Change and Human Security in Nigeria. Lagos: NIIA. Williams, P. D. (2008). Security Studies: An Introduction. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. Report Congressional Research Services. (2020). COVID-19: National Security and Defense Strategy. Congressional Research Services. Retrieved from https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/IF/IF11525 Online News and Websites Army Technology. (2018, November 1). Deadliest weapons: the most powerful and destructive in the world. Retrieved from Army Technology: https://www.army-technology.com/uncategorised/deadliest-weapons/ Bayuni, E. (2020, March 17). COVID-19 lockdown? It's not the economy. It's people's health and lives! Retrieved from The Jakarta Post: http://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2020/03/17/covid-19-lockdown-its-not-the-economy-stupid-its-peoples-health-and-lives.html BBC News. (2020, February 7). Li Wenliang: Coronavirus kills Chinese whistleblower doctor. Retrieved from BBC News: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.bbc.com/news/amp/world-asia-china-51403795 Bergen, P. (2020, March 19). Americans are going to demand to know why US wasn't prepared for this pandemic. Retrieved from CNN News: https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/19/opinions/coronavirus-commission-investigation-opinion-bergen/index.html CNN Indonesia. (2020, March 18). 7 Jenis Virus Mematikan di Dunia. Retrieved from CNN Indonesia: https://m.cnnindonesia.com/gaya-hidup/20200318122224-255-484500/7-jenis-virus-mematikan-di-dunia Economic Times. (2020, April 24). Chris Wood says lockdown disastrous for Indian economy. Retrieved from Economic Times: https://www.google.com/amp/s/m.economictimes.com/news/economy/indicators/chris-wood-says-lockdown-disastrous-for-indian-economy/amp_articleshow/75350072.cms Granoff, J., & Kellman, B. (2020, March 17). 'National Security' is too crude to protect us from pandemics. It's time to shift to human security instead. Retrieved from Newsweek: https://www.newsweek.com/human-security-national-security-covid-19-coronavirus-1492830 Hanson, V. D. (2017, November 2). Who gets to have nuclear weapons, and why? Retrieved from Chicago Tribune: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.chicagotribune.com/opinion/commentary/ct-perspec-hanson-nuclear-missle-korea-1102-story.html%3foutputType=amp Hylton, W. S. (2011, October 26). How Ready Are We for Bioterrorism? Retrieved from New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/30/magazine/how-ready-are-we-for-bioterrorism.html Markotter, W. (2020, March 19). COVID-19: Why it matters that scientists continue their search for source of 'patient zero's' infection. Retrieved from https://www.up.ac.za/news/post_2880755-covid-19-why-it-matters-that-scientists-continue-their-search-for-source-of-patient-zeros-infection- Marr, B. (2020, March 13). Coronavirus: How Artificial Intelligence, Data Science And Technology Is Used To Fight The Pandemic. Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2020/03/13/coronavirus-how-artificial-intelligence-data-science-and-technology-is-used-to-fight-the-pandemic/#798614805f5f Monaco, L. (2019). Pandemic Disease Is a Threat to National Security Washington Should Treat It Like One. Retrieved from Foreign Affairs: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2020/03-03/pandemic-disease-threat-national-security%3famp National Geographic. (2020, February 7). How Coronavirus Compares to Flu, Ebola, and other major outbreaks. Retrieved from Coronavirus Coverage: https://www.google.co.id/amp/s/api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/science/2020/02/graphic-coronavirus-compares-flu-ebola-other-major-outbreaks Park, A. (2020, March 19). The Tech That Could Be Our Best Hope for Fighting COVID-19—and Future Outbreaks. Retrieved from Time: https://time.com/5805622/coronavirus-pandemic-technology/ SETA. (2020, February 25). Coronavirus: A human security issue. Retrieved from SETA: https://www.setav.org/en/coronavirus-a-human-security-issue/ Shodhganga. (2016). Traditional and Non-Traditional Security Issues in Foreign Policy. Retrieved from Shodganga: https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.id Tan, W. (2020, April 21). US-China relations at a low as 'blame-shifting' sets back war against virus. Retrieved from CNBC: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.cnbc.com/amp/2020/04/22/coronavirus-trump-blames-china-virus-impact-on-trade-war.html Taufika, R. (2020). The militarization of COVID-19: mixing traditional and non-traditional security? CSIS Commentaries. Retrieved https://csis.or.id/publications/the-militarization-of-covid-19-mixing-traditional-and-non-traditional-security United Nations Development Programme. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic Humanity needs leadership and solidarity to defeat the coronavirus. Retrieved from United Nations Development Programme: https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/coronavirus.html Walker, T. (2020, April 21). First Thing: Trump resorts to familiar plan to fight Covid-19 ban immigration. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/apr/21/first-thing-trump-resorts-to-familiar-plan-to-fight-covid-19-ban-immigration World Health Organization. (2020, March 11). WHO Director General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 . Retrieved from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.