The rise of Japan after the defeat in World War II became the center of world admiration, including us in Indonesia. Human resources development through education has become the main key to the success of Japan. This certainly can be a reference for us in formulating human resources development policies in the future. We often feel amazed at the seriousness of the Japanese government in dealing with education problems. However, we also tend to ignore various facts related to it. For example, after the defeat of the war, Japanese academics and bureaucrats immediately conducted introspection and research to find out the cause of the defeat. From the results of this research, it was concluded that there were fatal errors in education policies and philosophies so far; departing from this understanding, a significant revision of the education law was immediately carried out. In other words, the Japanese government not only pays attention to education but they also completely overhaul educational policies. Japan lost the war against the United States. Consequently, for the following 7 years, 1945-1952, Japan was occupied by the United States of America, who had ordered Japan to change all policies, including educational policies. In this paper, we will look at what changes in the philosophical foundation and policy changes, as well as how the discussion process until the formulation and enactment of several new education laws, and what criticisms and expectations are implied in the education law.
土持ゲーリー「第一次米国教育使節団報告書」の作成経緯について 占領期におけるアメリカの対日教育政策の研究」（https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jces1975/1984/10/1984_10_29/_pdf）; 金井徹「戦後教育改革者による戦後教育改革評価の検討 －南原繁・務台理作・森戸辰男の言説に着目して」『東北大学大学院教育学研究か研究年報』第60週第1号(2011) ; 深谷潤「内村鑑三の「武士道に接木されたキリスト教」に関する間文化的哲学における一考察」『西南学院大学人間科学論集第10巻第1号、23－39ページ、2014年8月』; 阿久戸義愛「新渡戸稲造における品性の教育：礼儀忠さ（politeness）を中心に」『筑波大学倫理学研究会』2014年3月) ; Barshay, E. Andrew. State and Intellectual in Imperial Japan – The Public Man in Crisis. University of California Press, 1988 ; Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. W.W. Norton & Co., 1999; Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. Reden an die deutsche Nation. 1808. This book has been translated and published by Japan’s Ministry of Education in 1917 ; Baltz, Willam M. The Role of American Educators in the Decentralization and Reorganization of Education in Postwar Japan, 1945-1952. Ed. D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1965 ; Official Website of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan https://www.mext.go.jp.; Official Website of Japan Center for Asian Historical Records National Archives of Japan. https://www.jacar.go.jp.
"Post-World War II Education Reform in Japan,"
Journal of Strategic and Global Studies: Vol. 2
, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/jsgs/vol2/iss2/5