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Jurnal Kebijakan Ekonomi

Abstract

The study attempts to find out to what extent "grease the wheels" hypothesis can explain the bribery phenomena in Indonesia that has been done by the poor to access public services like public administration, police, health, and education. The study used cross-section data from a national survey of the Public Perception of the Corruption Trend 2018 conducted by Lembaga Survey Indonesia (LSI). The survey’s respondents are 3,670 households spread in 34 provinces in Indonesia. The study shows that the grease the wheels hypothesis is found only in health sector, confirming that the characteristics of the public services determine the likelihood of the poor to bribe when the quality of the public service is poor. The result of logit regression shows that the odds ratio of the poor people that have a bad perception on the quality of public service to bribe increases by a factor of 7,61 compared to the poor people that have good perception on the quality of public service. This shows that the characteristics of public services, such as the level of rivalry, cost of alternative services, and the risk to be excluded from the public service are the determinants of bribery in public services.

Bahasa Abstract

Penelitian ini mencoba untuk melihat sejauh mana hipotesis “grease the wheels” dapat menjelaskan fenomena suap di Indonesia yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat miskin untuk dapat mengakses pelayanan publik seperti administrasi publik, kepolisian, kesehatan, dan pendidikan. Studi ini menggunakan analisis data cross-section yang didapatkan dari survei nasional tentang Tren Persepsi Publik mengenai Korupsi tahun 2018 yang dilakukan oleh Lembaga Survey Indoensia (LSI). Suvei nasional tersebut memiliki 3,670 responden yang tersebar di 34 provinsi di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa bahwa hipotesis “grease the wheels” hanya ditemukan di sektor kesehatan, menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik pelayanan publik turut menentukan kecenderungan masyarakat miskin untuk melakukan suap saat pelayanan publik kurang baik. Hasil dari regresi logit menunjukkan kelompok masyarakat miskin yang memiliki persepsi bahwa kualitas pelayanan kesehatan di daerahnya buruk secara signifikan mengalami kenaikan rasio peluang untuk menyuap sebesar faktor 7,61 dibanding masyarakat miskin yang memiliki persepsi bahwa kualitas pelayanan kesehatan di daerahnya sudah baik. Hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa karakteristik layanan seperti tingkat rivalitas, biaya pelayanan alternatif, dan resiko ketika tidak mendapatkan pelayanan menjadi faktor yang menentukan perilaku suap dalam pelayanan publik.

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