Previous surveys have indicated that the majority of Indonesian children have poor oral health. However, scant information is available on children’s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL). The purpose of this study was to assess reliability as well as discriminant and convergent validity of Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF 19) Indonesian version. Methods: The Indonesian version of COHIP-SF 19 was developed according to the guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation process. The instrument was tested among 529 children between 12 – 15 years old who were randomly selected from six junior high schools in Jakarta. The psychometric testing included internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, discriminant validity, and convergent validity. Results: Mean age of the participants was 13.3±0.9 years and 54% of the participants were female. The mean COHIP-SF 19 score was 57.8±8.8 and the median was 58 (range 27 – 75). The internal consistency and test-retest reliability was excellent for COHIP-SF 19 score with Chronbach’s alpha 0.83 and intra-class correlation coefficient 0.81. Children with active decay, untreated caries with pulpal involvement, and gingivitis had significantly lower COHIP-SF 19 scores (p-value ≤ 0.030). Correlation between COHIP-SF 19 score, subscale scores and clinical severity as well as self-rated general or oral health were very low to low (rs = 0.04 – 0.27, p-value ≤ 0.028), after adjustment for children’s age and gender. Conclusions: The Indonesian version of COHIP-SF 19 was successfully developed to be used as an OHRQoL instrument for Indonesian school-age children. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, discriminant validity, and convergent validity of COHIP-SF 19 Indonesian version were confirmed.
1. World Health Organization. Health Promotion Glossary. 1998.
2. Dobaria N, Aapaliya P, Choudhary G, Sanadhya S, Jain S, Sharma N. Assessment and comparison of clinical dental status and its impact on oral healthrelated quality of life among rural and urban adults of Udaipur, India: A cross-sectional study. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2015;6:50.
3. Sischo L, Broder HL. Oral Health-related Quality of Life: What, Why, How, and Future Implications. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1264–70.
4. Genderson MW, Sischo L, Markowitz K, Fine D, Broder HL. An overview of children’s oral healthrelated quality of life assessment: from scale development to measuring outcomes. Caries Res. 2013;47 Suppl 1:13–21.
5. Cohen-Carneiro F, Souza-Santos R, Rebelo MAB. Quality of life related to oral health: contribution from social factors. Cien Saude Colet. 2011;16 Suppl 1:1007–15.
6. Bennadi D, Reddy CVK. Oral health related quality of life. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2013;3:1.
7. Broder HL, McGrath C, Cisneros GJ. Questionnaire development: Face validity and item impact testing of the child oral health impact profile. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35:8–19.
8. Gilchrist F, Rodd H, Deery C, Marshman Z. Assessment of the quality of measures of child oral health-related quality of life. BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:40.
9. Dunlow N, Phillips C, Broder HL. Concurrent validity of the COHIP. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35:41–49.
10. Broder HL, Wilson-Genderson M. Reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP Child’s version). Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35:20–31.
11. Broder HL, Wilson-Genderson M, Sischo L. Reliability and validity testing for the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Reduced (COHIP-SF 19). J Public Health Dent. 2012;72:302–12.
12. Li C, Xia B, Wang Y, Guan X, Yuan J, Ge L. Translation and psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 (COHIPSF 19) for school-age children. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014;12:169.
13. Ahn YS, Kim HY, Hong SM, Patton LL, Kim JH, Noh HJ. Validation of a Korean version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) among 8- to 15-year-old school children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012;22:292–301.
14. Osta NE, Pichot H, Soulier-Peigue D, Hennequin M, Tubert-Jeannin S. Validation of the child oral health impact profile (COHIP) french questionnaire among 12 years-old children in New Caledonia. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015;13:176.
15. Sierwald I, John MT, Sagheri D, Neuschulz J, Schüler E, Splieth C, Jost-Brinkmann PG, Reissmann DR. The German 19-item version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile: translation and psychometric properties. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20(2):301-13.
16. Geels LM, Hoogstraten J, Prahl-Andersen B. Confirmative factor analysis of the dimensions of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (Dutch version). Eur J Oral Sci. 2008, 116(2):148-52.
17. Asgari I, Ahmady AE, Broder H, Eslamipour F, Wilson-Genderson M. Assessing the oral healthrelated quality of life in Iranian adolescents: validity of the Persian version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP). Oral Health Prev Dent. 2013;11:147-54.
18. Charter RA. Sample Size Requirements for Precise Estimates of Reliability, Generalizability, and Validity Coefficients. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1999;21:559–66.
19. Guillemin F, Bombardier C, Beaton D. Crosscultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures : Literature review and proposed guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46:1417–32.
20. World Health Organization. Oral health surveys basic methods. 5th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
21. Monse B, Heinrich-Weltzien R, Benzian H, Holmgren C, Palenstein V. PUFA – An index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. 2010;77–82.
22. Löe H. The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems. J Periodontol. 1967;38:610–6.
23. Calis EM, Geels LM, Prahl-Andersen B, Zentner A. Oral health-related quality of life and dental esthetics in Amsterdam schoolchildren. J Dent Child. 2009, 76(2):130-5.
24. McGrath C, Broder H, Wilson-Genderson M. Assessing the impact of oral health on the life quality of children: implications for research and practice. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004, 32:81-5.
25. Ravaghi V, Ardakan MMM, Shahriari S, Mokhtari N, Underwood M. Comparison of the COHIP and OHIP- 14 as measures of the oral health-related quality of life of adolescents. Community Dent Health. 2011;28(1):82–8.
26. Slade GD, Reisine ST. The child oral health impact profile: current status and future directions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35 Suppl 1:50–3.
27. Bos A, Prahl C. Oral health-related quality of life in Dutch children with cleft lip and/or palate. Angle Orthod. 2011;81(5):865–71.
28. Geels LM, Kieffer JM, Hoogstraten J, Prahl- Andersen B. Oral health-related quality of life of children with craniofacial conditions. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45(5):461-7.
29. Wilson-Genderson M, Broder HL, Phillips C. Concordance between caregiver and child reports of children’s oral health-related quality of life. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35(Suppl 1):32-40.
30. Bos A, Hoogstraten J, Zentner A. Perceptions of Dutch orthodontic patients and their parents on oral health-related quality of life. Angle Orthod. 2010;80(2):367–72.
31. Cho YI, Lee S, Patton LL, Kim HY. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (Korean version). Eur J Oral Sci. 2016;124(2):72-8.
32. Jokovic A, Locker D, Guyatt G. Short forms of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11-14-year-old children (CPQ11-14): development and initial evaluation. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;19(4):4.
33. Castro RA, Cortes MI, Leão AT, Portela MC, Souza IP, Tsakos G, Marcenes W, Sheiham A. Child-OIDP index in Brazil: cross-cultural adaptation and validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;15(6):68.
Nuraini, S. L., Rahardjo, A., & Maharani, D. A. An Indonesian Version of Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF19): Assessing Validity and Reliability. J Dent Indones. 2021;28(1): 45-53