The orthopantomogram (OPG) is a common dental screening radiograph that has multiple implications. However, lateral cephalogram is the investigation of choice for the assessment of vertical facial pattern. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of an OPG parameter i.e. panoramic gonial angle (PGoA) for the assessment of the vertical facial pattern. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the pretreatment OPG and lateral cephalograms of 200 orthodontic patients aged 15-40 years. The PGoA was measured on both sides and an average was used for statistical analysis. The Pearson’s correlations of PGoA were measured with cephalometric gonial angle (CGoA), SN-GoGn, MMA, FMA, LAFH/TAFH% and PFH/TAFH%. The diagnostic test statistics were applied for PGoA against gold standard “definitive diagnosis (DD)” derived from SN GoGn and FMA. A p-value ofResults: The mean CGoA was 121.18º ± 5.16º which was significantly different (pConclusion: The current study identifies PGoA as a valid tool for the assessment of vertical facial pattern of orthodontic patients with its normal value 116º±3º in our sample.


  1. Bruks A, Enberg K, Nordqvist I, Hansson AS, Jansson L, Svenson B. Radiographic examinations as an aid to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Swed Dent J. 1999;23:7785.
  2. Friedland B. Clinical radiological issues in orthodontic practice. Semin Orthod. 1998;4:6478.
  3. Cobourne MT, DiBiase AT. Handbook of Orthodontics. Elsevier; 2016.
  4. Graber TM. Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques. 2nd ed. St Louis: CV Mosby; 1994.
  5. Mitchell L. An Introduction to Orthodontics. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford University Press. 2007. pp 90109.
  6. Mattila K, Altonen M, Haavikko K. Determination of the gonial angle from the orthopantomogram. Angle Orthod. 1977;47:10710.
  7. Fischer-Brandies H, Fischer-Brandies E, Dielert E. The mandibular angle in the orthopantomogram. Radiologe. 1984;24:547-9.
  8. Zangouei-Booshehri M, Aghili HA, Abasi M, Ezoddini-Ardakani F. Agreement between panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs for measuring the gonial angle. Iran J Radiol. 2012;9:17882.
  9. Alhaija ESJA . Panoramic radiographs: Determination of mandibular steepness. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005;29:1656.
  10. Majeed M, Ahmed I. Comparison of gonial angle determination from cephalograms and orthopantomogram of patients under orthodontic treatment. J Bahria Univ Med Dent Coll. 2016;6:8891.157
  11. Downs WB. Variations in facial relationships; their significance in treatment and prognosis. Am J Orthod. 1948;34:812-40.
  12. Steiner CC. Cephalometrics for you and me. Am J Orthod. 1953;39:720-55.
  13. Schwarz AM. Roentgenostatics. Am J Orthod. 1961;47:561-85.
  14. Horn AJ. Facial height index. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1992;102:180-6.
  15. Ahmed M, Shaikh A, Fida M. Diagnostic performance of various cephalometric parameters for the assessment of vertical growth pattern. Dent Press J Orthod. 2016;21:41-9.
  16. Ganeiber T, Bugaighis I. Assessment of the validity of orthopantomographs in the evaluation of mandibular steepness in Libya. J Orthod Sci. 2018;7:14.
  17. Akcam MO, Altiok T, Ozdiler E. Panoramic radiographs: a tool for investigating skeletal pattern. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2003;123:17581.
  18. Björk A, Skieller V. Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. Asynthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years. Eur J Orthod. 1983;5:1-46.
  19. Radhakrishnan PD, Sapna Varma NK, Ajith VV. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram. Imaging Sci Dent. 2017;47:93-7.
  20. Larheim TA, Svanaes DB. Reproducibility of rotational panoramic radiography: mandibular linear dimensions and angles. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 1986;90:4551.
  21. Raustia AM, Salonen MAM. Gonial angles and condylar and ramus height of the mandible in complete denture wearers-a panoramic radiograph study. J Oral Rehabil. 1997;24:5126.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.