The Covid-19 Pandemic has shifted the behaviour of decision-makers in all business processes. This situation has accelerated the process of digitizing all information, information technology, and business processes. As a subsidiary of an Oil and Gas State-Owned Enterprise in Indonesia, The SHU also has a similar SOE's bureaucracy for the approval process in business development. What factors were considered, and how did the interaction and interrelation within those factors influence the decision-making is the main question in this research. This research aims at developing the decision-making system by accommodating the decision-maker's needs and preferences. Action research based on soft systems methodology (SSM) is used to model the new decision-making system and compare results. The long decision-making stages of business development investment have delayed several important business development projects, leading to missed early production opportunities and increased capital investment. Financial decision documents have to be wet-signed by all stakeholders involved in the decision -making process. It is practically difficult to follow existing business processes for business development approval during the Pandemic. The Covid-19 Pandemic is an entry point for redefining existing decision-making systems. The results showed that the principle of prudence and compliance are the main factors influencing decision-making. The development of digital review and approval based on a decision-making system conceptual model accommodated the interests of all stakeholders, and business processes continued during the Pandemic


Budiman, A., Lin, D., & Singham, S. (2009). Improving performance at state-owned enterprises. McKinsey Quarterly, (May), 1–5.

Checkland, P., & Scholes, J. (1999). Soft systems methodology: a 30-year retrospective. In Library.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). The Selection of a Research Approach. In Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods approaches. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Da Silva Neves, A. J., & Camanho, R. (2015). The use of AHP for IT project priorization - A case study for oil & gas Company. Procedia Computer Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.07.076

Dabić, M., Tipurić, D., & Podrug, N. (2015). Cultural differences affecting decision-making style: a comparative study between four countries. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 16(2), 275–289. https://doi.org/10.3846/16111699.2013.859172

Dahooie, J. H., Zavadskas, E. K., Abolhasani, M., Vanaki, A., & Turskis, Z. (2018). A novel approach for evaluation of projects using an interval-valued fuzzy additive ratio assessment (ARAS) method: A case study of oil and gas well drilling projects. Symmetry. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10020045

De Almeida, A. T., Alencar, M. H., Garcez, T. V., & Ferreira, R. J. P. (2017). A systematic literature review of multicriteria and multi-objective models applied in risk management. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics. https://doi.org/10.1093/imaman/dpw021

Ertosun, O. G., & Adiguzel, Z. (2018). Leadership, Personal Values and Organizational Culture. Contributions to Management Science, (January 2020), 51–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77622-4_3

Hanafizadeh, P., & Vali Zadeh, R. (2015). Vendor Selection Using Soft Thinking Approach: A Case Study of National Iranian South Oil Company. Systemic Practice and Action Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11213-014-9334-z

Muluk, M. R. K., Danar, O. R., & Rahmawati, L. (2020). Community Participation and Development Planning in Local Government Level: A Study on the Formulation of Batu City Medium-Term Development Plan. Bisnis & Birokrasi Journal, 26(3). https://doi.org/10.20476/jbb.v26i3.11145

Nem Singh, J., & Chen, G. C. (2018). State-owned enterprises and the political economy of state–state relations in the developing world. Third World Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2017.1333888

Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015). Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Evidence-Based Nursing, 18(2), 34–35. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2015-102054

Qaradaghi, M., & Deason, J. P. (2018). Analysis of MCDM methods output coherence in oil and gas portfolio prioritization. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-017-0344-0

Siksnelyte, I., Zavadskas, E. K., Streimikiene, D., & Sharma, D. (2018). An overview of multi-criteria decision-making methods in dealing with sustainable energy development issues. Energies. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102754

Silverman, D., & Marvasti, A. (2008). Doing qualitative research: A comprehensive guide. In Sage Publications.

Susanti, V., Sumarwan, U., Simanjuntak, M., & Yusuf, E. Z. (2020). The Rational Factors of Perceived Quality and Perceived Value as the Drivers of Customer Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty. Bisnis & Birokrasi Journal, 26(3). https://doi.org/10.20476/jbb.v26i3.11121

Utoyo, B., Fahmi, M. I., & Murdanoto, A. P. (2019). Improving Performance of Indonesia State-Owned Enterprises Holding; Policies and Strategies. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(5), 686–695. https://doi.org/10.24203/ajas.v7i5.5976

Wang, W., Liu, W., & Mingers, J. (2015). A systemic method for organisational stakeholder identification and analysis using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). European Journal of Operational Research, 246(2), 562–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.05.014


Checkland, P., & Scholes, J. (1998). Soft System Methodology in Action. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Coghlan, D., & Brannick, T. (2005). Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization. London: Sage Publication.

Kinichi, A., & Fugate, M. (2012). Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skills & Best Practice 5th Edition. Ney York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2017). Organizational Behavior 17th Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.