The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 outlines the rights of a state to exercise its obligation to protect the interests of its nationals abroad. The protection given by states to their nationals is commonly referred to as consular assistance. The main objective of consular assistance is to help nationals facing difficulties abroad. In the event of an arrest, the aim of the provision of consular assistance is to protect the inalienable rights of a foreign detainee. The inalienable rights inherent to all detainees are the right to retain counsel, and to receive due process of law. Although the 1963 Convention on Consular Relations is the codification of international customary law with regard to states’ practises in protecting their nationals, the practises may vary from one state to another. This paper analyses the policy and practises adopted by a state to protect its nationals detained abroad and suggests effective policies to provide consular assistance based on the reviewed state practises and policies.

Bahasa Abstract

Konvensi Wina tentang Hubungan Konsuler 1963 telah menggariskan hak-hak negara untuk melaksanakan kewajibannya untuk melindungi kepentingan warga negaranya di luar negeri. Perlindungan yang diberikan oleh negara untuk warganegaranya sering disebut dengan bantuan konsuler. Tujuan utama dari bantuan konsuler adalah untuk membantu warga menghadapi kesulitan di luar negeri. Dalam hal penangkapan, tujuan pemberian bantuan konsuler adalah melindungi hak-hak asasi tahanan. Hak yang melekat mutlak untuk semua tahanan untuk mendapatkan nasihat, dan untuk menjalankan proses hukum sesuai dengan ketentuan yang berlaku. Meskipun 1963 Konvensi tentang Hubungan Konsuler adalah kodifikasi hukum kebiasaan internasional sehubungan dengan praktik negara ‘dalam melindungi warga negara mereka, praktik pemberian bantuan consular dapat bervariasi dari satu negara ke negara lain. Makalah ini menganalisis kebijakan dan praktek-praktek yang diadopsi oleh negara untuk melindungi warga negaranya yang ditahan di luar negeri dan menyarankan kebijakan yang efektif untuk memberikan bantuan konsuler berdasarkan praktek negara yang diulas dan kebijakan.


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