The digital ride-hailing service platforms have advanced significantly due to technological development. It resulted in lower consumer costs and better-quality service. Thus, consumers opted for such platforms more than the conventional transportation, resulting in their exponential growth over the years such as Gojek and Grab in Indonesia. Their strong market position was achieved quickly, facilitated by innovation advantages such as indirect network effects and algorithm-based analysis of users’ past data. Ultimately, data has become a barrier for potential competitors to entering the market. Simultaneously, the incumbents or the dominant market holders likely to use a technology-based strategy by keeping access to such data closed and inaccessible, maintaining their market position. Its strategy might fall under exclusionary abuse, a behavior that intends to protect and increase platforms’ dominant position. Thus, such action can be harmful to healthy competition and impede inclusive growth in ride-hailing services’ market competition. In this paper, the author will argue that refusal to grant data access should be regulated as a part of Indonesia Competition Law’s exclusionary conduct and remedied using mandated data portability.

Bahasa Abstract

Platform layanan sewa angkutan digital telah maju secara signifikan karena perkembangan teknologi. Hal menghasilkan biaya konsumen yang lebih rendah dan layanan berkualitas lebih baik. Dengan demikian, konsumen lebih memilih platform tersebut daripada transportasi konvensional, sehingga pertumbuhan eksponensial mereka selama bertahun-tahun seperti Gojek dan Grab di Indonesia. Posisi pasar mereka yang kuat dicapai dengan cepat, difasilitasi oleh keunggulan inovasi seperti efek jaringan tidak langsung dan analisis data masa lalu pengguna berbasis algoritma. Pada akhirnya, data telah menjadi penghalang bagi pesaing potensial untuk memasuki pasar. Secara bersamaan, petahana atau pemegang pasar dominan cenderung menggunakan strategi berbasis teknologi dengan menjaga akses ke data tersebut tertutup dan tidak dapat diakses, mempertahankan posisi pasar mereka. Strateginya mungkin termasuk dalam penyalahgunaan eksklusif, perilaku yang bertujuan untuk melindungi dan meningkatkan posisi dominan platform. Dengan demikian, tindakan tersebut dapat membahayakan persaingan yang sehat dan menghambat pertumbuhan inklusif dalam persaingan pasar layanan perjalanan. Dalam tulisan ini, penulis berargumen bahwa penolakan untuk memberikan akses data harus diatur sebagai bagian dari perilaku ekslusif UU Persaingan Indonesia dan diperbaiki dengan menggunakan portabilitas data yang diamanatkan.


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Conference Papers Kariga, Romeo, and Lindiwe Khumalo, ‘Barriers to Entry, Exclusionary Strategies, and Inclusive Growth’ (Conference Paper, 2nd Annual Competition, and Economic Regulation Week Southern Africa Conference Programme, 11-12 March 2016) Parakkal, Raju, ’Antitrust in the Digital Era: Rethinking Dominance and Its Abuse’ (Conference Paper, 6th CUTS-CIRC Biennial Conference on Competition, Regulation, and Development, 1-2 December 2019)

Student Thesis Ayu Rachmawati, ‘Relevant Market on Online Traffic Transportation’ (LLB Thesis, Universitas Islam Indonesia, 2017)

Internet Materials Ken Dai, ‘Big Data and Antitrust Risks in Close-Up: From the Perspective of Real Cases’ Mondaq: Connecting Knowledge & People https://www.mondaq.com/china/antitrust-eu-competition-/1010918/big-data-and-antitrust-risks-in-close-up-from-the-perspective-of-real-cases Rinaldi Mohammad Azka, ‘Berapa Sih Jumlah Pengemudi Ojek Online? Simak Penelusuran Bisnis.com‘ [How Many Online Ride-Hailing Riders?] (Indonesia) Bisnis.com https://ekonomi.bisnis.com/read/20191112/98/1169620/berapa-sih-jumlah-pengemudi-ojek-online-simak-penelusuran-bisnis.com Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, “Public Consultation on Draft Regulation of the Minister of Communication and Informatics Regarding Data Interoperability” https://www.kominfo.go.id/content/detail/27030/siaran-pers-no-74hmkominfo062020-tentang-konsultasi-publik-rancangan-peraturan-menteri-kominfo-mengenai-interoperabilitas-data/0/siaran_pers