The 4th industrial revolution and its attendant technologies have given rise to many discussions around the impact of technology on the rule of law. A fundamental premise of the rule of law is that it requires an effective sovereign to establish formal legality. The sovereigns undertaking this responsibility today are states. However, the digital spaces by their very nature challenge the ability of states to do so. Digital spaces present challenges to traditional territorial notions of jurisdiction resulting in their tendency to be “ungoverned”. Ungoverned digital spaces, as with their physical counterparts, are spaces where the rule of law does not operate. Moreover, ungoverned digital spaces can also impact governance in physical spaces. But not all states are equal, and each has unique social contexts to grapple with. Thus, in considering the questions around technology and the rule of law, it is necessary to consider the difference in contexts between states. Such topics are also generally discussed from the perspective of developed and industrialized states, where technology is most extensively developed and deployed. But the impact of the 4th industrial revolution is not limited to the developed world, and communities in developing states constantly engage with such technology, particularly with social media, even if such technology and platforms are developed elsewhere. This paper considers the impact of digital spaces on the rule of law from the perspectives of developing states, focusing on Southeast Asia.

Bahasa Abstract

Revolusi industri ke-4 dan teknologi yang menyertainya telah memunculkan banyak diskusi seputar dampak teknologi terhadap supremasi hukum. Premis mendasar dari negara hukum adalah kebutuhan akan kedaulatan yang efektif untuk membangun legalitas formal. Negara hadir sebagai penguasa yang bertanggung jawab. Namun, ruang digital pada dasarnya menjadi tantangan tersendiri bagi negara. Tantangan ruang digital hadir pada gagasan teritorial tradisional tentang yurisdiksi yang mengakibatkan kecenderungan mereka untuk “tidak diatur”. Ruang digital yang tidak diatur adalah ruang di mana aturan hukum tidak ditegakkan. Selain itu, ruang digital yang tidak diatur juga dapat memengaruhi tata kelola di ruang fisik. Tetapi tidak semua negara adalah sama, dan masing-masing memiliki konteks sosial yang unik untuk dihadapi. Jadi, dalam mempertimbangkan pertanyaan seputar teknologi dan supremasi hukum, perlu dipertimbangkan perbedaan konteks antar negara. Topik seperti itu juga umumnya dibahas dari perspektif negara maju dan negara industri, di mana teknologi paling luas dikembangkan dan digunakan. Tetapi dampak dari revolusi industri ke-4 tidak terbatas pada negara maju, dan masyarakat di negara berkembang terus-menerus terlibat dalam penggunaan teknologi tersebut, terutama dengan media sosial, bahkan jika teknologi dan platform tersebut dikembangkan di tempat lain. Makalah ini mempertimbangkan dampak ruang digital terhadap supremasi hukum dari perspektif negara berkembang, dengan fokus di Asia Tenggara.


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