In any State of Asylum, the process of Refugee Status Determination (RSD) conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is critical in facilitating asylumseekers to seek necessary protections. UNHCR ensures that asylum-seekers will not be returned involuntarily to the State of Origin where they could face persecution. As a long-term solution, UNHCR helps refugees to find appropriate and permanent solutions to their plights, either by repatriating them voluntarily to their homeland or assisting them to integrate into the States of Asylum or helping them to resettle in third States. In the absence of domestic legal protection in dealing with the refugees and asylum-seekers in Malaysia, a variety of operations are executed by UNHCR, including the admission, registration, documentation, and status determination of asylum seekers and refugees. To prevent the deportation of individuals qualified for international protection, UNHCR should reassess its RSD process in Malaysia, and consider alternative means that would be less burdensome and less risky for people who are fleeing violence and human rights violations. Primarily aimed at reassessing the RSD process in Malaysia using a doctrinal and comparative approach, the analysis is presented in four parts in this article. The first part provides for the definition and current statistics of refugee and asylum-seekers in Malaysia; the second part examines the mechanism of RSD conducted by UNHCR under international law; the third part focuses on how RSD operates in Malaysia; the last part reviews the mechanism of RSD in Indonesia and Brazil.

Bahasa Abstract

Di Negara Suaka manapun, proses Penentuan Status Pengungsi (RSD) yang dilakukan oleh Komisioner Tinggi PBB untuk Pengungsi (UNHCR) dinilai sangat penting dalam memfasilitasi para pencari suaka yang membutuhkan perlindungan. UNHCR menjamin bahwa pencari suaka tidak akan dikembalikan secara paksa ke Negara Asal di mana mereka akan menghadapi tindakan kekerasan. Sebagai solusi, UNHCR membantu para pengungsi untuk menemukan solusi yang tepat dan pasti untuk meringankan penderitaan mereka, baik dengan memulangkan mereka secara sukarela ke tanah air mereka atau membantu mereka untuk berintegrasi di dalam Negara Suaka atau membantu mereka untuk bermukim kembali di Negara ketiga. Dengan tidak adanya perlindungan hukum nasional dalam menangani pengungsi dan pencari suaka di Malaysia, berbagai operasi yang dilakukan oleh UNHCR, antara lain berupa penerimaan, pendaftaran, pencatatan, dan penetapan status pencari suaka dan pengungsi. Untuk mencegah deportasi terhadap individu yang memenuhi syarat perlindungan internasional, UNHCR harus meninjau kembali proses RSD di Malaysia dengan mempertimbangkan cara-cara lain yang tidak akan membebani maupun membawa risiko bagi orang-orang yang melarikan diri dari kekerasan dan pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk meninjau kembali proses RSD di Malaysia dengan menggunakan pendekatan doktrinal dan komparatif, artikel ini akan disajikan dalam empat bagian. Bagian pertama membahas definisi dan statistik terkini tentang pengungsi dan pencari suaka di Malaysia; bagian kedua mengkaji mekanisme RSD yang dilakukan oleh UNCHR menurut perspektif hukum internasional; bagian ketiga membahas operasi RSD di Malaysia; dan bagian terakhir mengulas mekanisme RSD di Indonesia dan Brazil.


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