Plastic is a significant portion of marine debris, ranging from 60% to 80%. Historically, ships have been a major contributor to plastic pollution in the ocean, followed by Indonesia, which is acknowledged as the second-largest originator. Global efforts to combat marine pollution, including plastic waste, have been undertaken through international agreements like MARPOL Annex V. This agreement has mandated countries to establish suitable port facilities for ship-generated wastes. However, an assessment of Indonesian ports indicated insufficient compliance with environmental management standards, particularly in waste handling. The current direct fee policy for waste disposal may disincentivize proper waste disposal by ship operators. This research examined and analyzed standards for adequate port waste reception facilities and explored the potential of implementing an indirect fee policy to promote responsible waste disposal. The research also provided recommendations for enhancing plastic waste management in accordance with international treaties ratified by the Indonesian government. The result showed that although existing national legal instruments indirectly address plastic waste concerns, specific regulations and updates are needed. Furthermore, the introduction of indirect fee policies for waste disposal at ports, coupled with stronger law enforcement, can incentivize proper waste management practices. These policies offered a promising strategy to address the challenges posed by plastic waste and contribute to sustainable environmental practices. By adopting these policies, countries were able to take a proactive approach to mitigating plastic pollution and protecting marine ecosystems.


Journals and Periodicals

Cordova, M. Reza. “Plastic Pollution in the Ocean.” Oseana 42, no.3 (2017): 21-30.

Garofalo, G., F. Quattrocchi, G. Bono, M. Di Lorenzo, et. al. “What is in our seas? Assessing anthropogenic litter on the seafloor of the central Mediterranean Sea.” Environmental Pollution 266, (2020): 115213.

Hagen, Paul E. “The International Community Confronts Plastics Pollution from Ships: MARPOL Annex V and the Problem That Won’t Go Away.” American University International Law Review 5, no. 2 (1990): 425-496.

Isfarin, Nadia Nurani and Marsudi Triatmodjo. “International Cooperation on Marine Environment Protection of Oil Pollution from Vessel (A Study of Straits Malacca and Singapore).” Indonesian Journal of International Law 12, no. 4 (2015): 508-537. doi: 10.17304/ijil.vol12.4.619.

Jambeck, Jenna R., Roland Geyer, Chris Wilcox, et. al. “Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.” Science 347, (2015): 768-771. DOI:10.1126/science.1260352.

Karim, M. Saiful. “Implementation of the MARPOL Convention in Developing Countries.” Nordic Journal of International Law 79, no. 2 (2010): 303-337. https://doi.org/10.1163/157181010X12668401899110.

Moore, Charles James. “How much plastic is in the ocean? You tell me!” Marine Pollution Bulletin 92, (2015): 1-3.

Utami, Tri Kusumaning and Veronika Sekar Puriningsih. “Kajian Pemanfaatan Reception Facilities di Pelabuhan Makassar [Utilization Study Reception Facilities at the Port of Makassar].” Warta Penelitian Perhubungan 25, no. 4 (2013): 256-271. doi: 10.25104/warlit.v25i4.728.

Villarrubia-Gomez, Patricia, Sarah E. Cornell, Joan Fabres. “Marine plastic pollution as a planetary boundary threat – The drifting piece in the sustainability puzzle.” Marine Policy Journal 96, (2018): 213-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.11.035.

Zou, Keyuan and Lei Zhang. “Implementing the London Dumping Convention in East Asia.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy 2, no. 2 (2017): 247-267. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/24519391-00202004.

Books and Book Chapters

Bungim, Burhan. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif [Qualitative Research Methodology]. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2001.

Simon, Nils, and Maro Luisa Schulte. Stopping Global Plastic Pollution: The Case for an International Convention. Heinrich Boll Foundation, 2017.

Soekanto, Soerjono. Metode Penelitian Hukum Normatif [Normative Legal Research]. Jakarta: Rajawali, 1985.

Legal Documents

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. 1340 UNTS 61 (adopted 2 November 1973, entry into force 2 October 1983).

Convention for The Protection of The Marine Environment of The Northeast Atlantic 1992. 354 UNTS 67 (open for signature 22 September 1992, enter into force 25 March 1998).

Convention on The Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping and Other Matter. 1046 UNTS 120 (adopted 29 December 1972, entry into force 30 August 1975).

Bangkok Declaration on Combating Marine Debris on ASEAN Region, adopted 22 June 2019.

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Kelautan. UU No. 32 Tahun 2014. (Law on Maritime Affairs. Law No. 32 of 2014).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang tentang Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus. UU No. 39 Tahun 2009. (Law on Special Economic Zones. UU No. 39 of 2009).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Pengelolaan Sampah. UU No. 18 Tahun 2008. (Law on Waste Management. Law No. 18 of 2008).

Indonesia. Undang-Undang tentang Pelayaran. UU No. 17 Tahun 2008. (Law on Shipping. Law No. 17 of 2008).

Indonesia. Peraturan Pemerintah tentang Penyelenggaraan Keamanan, Keselamatan, dan Penegakan Hukum di Wilayah Perairan Indonesia dan Wilayah Yurisdiksi Indonesia. PP No. 13 Tahun 2022. (Presidential Regulation on The Implementation of Security, Safety, and Law Enforcement in Indonesian Territorial Waters. PP No. 13 of 2022).

Indonesia. Peraturan Pemerintah tentang Penyelenggaraan Bidang Pelayaran. PP No. 31 Tahun 2021. (Government Regulation on The Operation of the Shipping Sector, Government Regulation No. 31 of 2021).

Indonesia. Peraturan Pemerintah tentang Perlindungan Lingkungan Maritim. PP No. 21 Tahun 2010. (Government Regulation on the Protection of the Maritime Environment, Government Regulation No. 21 of 2010).

Indonesia. Peraturan Presiden tentang Penanganan Sampah Laut. Perpres No. 83 Tahun 2018. (Presidential Regulation on Marine Debris Management, Presidential Regulation No. 83 of 2018).

Indonesia. Ministerial Regulation of Transportation No. 29 of 2014 on Maritime Pollution Prevention.

Indonesia. Ministerial Regulation of Transportation No. KM 4 of 2005 concerning The Prevention of Pollution from Ships.

Web Sources

Gerdiansyah. “Kapal Besar Sering Buang Sampah di Laut [Large Ships Often Dump Garbage at Sea].” Akurat. Accessed 15 May 2023, https://akurat.co/officer-kapal-besar-sering-buang-sampah-di-laut.

Global Plastic Action. “Indonesia.” Accessed 15 May 2023, https://globalplasticaction.org/countries/indonesia/.

Hiar, Hairil. “Ships Found Garbage in the Back Sea of Mall Jatiland Ternate.” Kieraha. Accessed 15 May 2023, https://kieraha.com/maluku[8]north/ternate/46662/ship-of-goods-wascaught-dumping- garbage-in-the-behind-mall-jatiland-ternate.

Ika Azkiya Dihni, “Ada Berapa Banyak Sampah di Laut? [How much ocean debris in Indonesia?]” Databoks, 18 May 2022, accessed on 1 August 2022, https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2022/05/18/ada-berapa-banyak-sampah- di-laut-indonesia.

Marine Research Center of the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries. “Marine Researcher Says About Ship Workers Dumping Garbage into the Natuna Sea.” Accessed 15 May 2023 http://pusriskel.litbang.kkp.go.id/index.php/home/1652-kata-peneliti -sea-questions-of-ship- officers- throwing-garbage-into-natural-sea.


Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Report of the Directorate General of Pollution Control and Environmental Damage of 2019. 2020.