This article argues that the content of the legal term “peaceful purposes,”as used in international space law is changing. Peaceful Purposes as understood throughout the bulk of the Space Age has encompassed not only the UN Charter’s prohibitions on the use of force, but also a number of customary international law principles that enhanced it beyond mere non-aggression. Through an examination of state practice with regards to the military uses of outer space, this article concludes that the legal content of peaceful purposes is eroding towards an alignment with “non-aggressive” as understood in the law concerning the use of force. Specifically, this article argues that geopolitical and technological changes are encouraging states to pursue disruption in the space environment rather than stability, and this has been matched with state practice and rhetoric that exhibits that states are moving toward more offensive, rather than defensive, stances in the space environment.
Legal documents Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, 1995, April 15, 1994. Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro, 5 June 1992, United Nations, Treaty Series , vol. 1760, p. 79, Art.1 European Union. Directive 2018/2001 of the European Parliement and of the Council on the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources (Recast), Dec. 21, 2018, O.J (L 328/82). European Union. Draft of the Commission DR on Supplementing Directive (EU) 2018/2001 as Regards the Determination of High Indirect Land-Use Change-Risk Feedstock for which a Significant Expansion of the Production Area into Land with High Carbon Stock is Observed and the Certification of Low Indirect Landuse Change-Risk biofuel, Bioliquids and Biomass Fuels (2019). General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1948, Oct.30, 1947, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, New York, 9 May 1992, United Nations, Treaty Series , vol. 1771, p. 107. United Nations, G.A. Res/70/1, Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Oct. 21, 2015). United Nations. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 1972 [hereinafter Stockholm Declaration]. World Trade Organization, Appellate Body Report, European Union – Anti-Dumping Measures on Biodiesel from Indonesia. WT/DS480/R, (Jan. 25, 2018). World Trade Organization. Appellate Body Report, Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres. WT/DS332/AB/R (adopted Dec.3, 2007). World Trade Organization. Appellate Body Report, E.C. – Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products. WT/DS400/AB/R, WT/DS401/AB/R (May 22, 2014). World Trade Organization. Appellate Body Report, Korea – Measures Affecting Import of Fresh, Chilled, and Frozen Beef. WT/DS161/AB/R, WT/DS169/AB/R (Dec.11, 2000). World Trade Organization. Appellate Body Report, U.S – Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products. WT/DS58/AB/R (adopted Oct.12, 1998). World Trade Organization. Appellate Body Report, U.S. – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline. WT/DS2/9 (May 20, 1996). World Trade Organization. Report of the Panel, European Union - Anti-Dumping Measures on Biodiesel from Indonesia. WT/DS480/R (Jan.25, 2018) Books and book chapters European Union. Final Report on the Impact of EU Consumption on Deforestation: Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of EU Consumption on Deforestation (Brussels: European Union, 2013). Junguito, Antonio Tena. “Spanish Protectionism during the Restauracion, 1875-1930” in Classical Trade Protectionism 1815-1914, edited by Jean-Pierre Dormois & Pedro Lains, 267-269. Routledge, 2006. Lains, Pedro. “Protectionism and Portugese Industrialisation” in Classical Trade Protectionism 1815-1914, edited by Jean-Pierre Dormois & Pedro Lains, 243-48. Routledge, 2006. Sassoon, Enrico. “Protectionism and International Trade Negotiations During the 1980s” in The New Protectionist Wave edited by Enzo Grilli & Enrico Sassoon eds., 1-38. London, Palgrave MacMillan, 1990. Secchi, Carlo. “Protectionism, Internal Market Completion, and Foreign Trade Policy in the European Community” The New Protectionist Wave edited by Enzo Grilli & Enrico Sassoon eds., 39-73. London, Palgrave MacMillan, 1990. Journal and periodicals Bartels, Lorand. “The Chapeau of the General Exceptions in the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements: A Reconstruction” American Journal of International Law 109 (2015): 95-125. Benson, Christine C. “Putting Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: The Varied Success of biofuel Incentive Policies in the United States and the European Union” Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 16 (2010): 633. Beyers, Carol J. “The U.S./Mexico Tuna Embargo Dispute: a Case Study of the GATT and Environmental Progress” Maryland Journal of International Law 16, no 2 (1992): 229-253. Cramer, Gael L. et.al. “Impact of Rice Tariffication on Japan and the World Rice Market” American Journal of Agricultural Economy, 81, no. 5 (1999): 1149-1156. Crist, Eileen. “Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse,” Telos 141 (Winter 2017): 29-55. Fouda, Regine Adele Ngono. “Protectionism and Free Trade: A Country’s Glory or Doom?” International Journal of Trade, Economy and Finance 3 no. 5 (2012): 351-355. Ghori, Umair. “An Epic Mess: ‘Exhaustible Natural Resources’ and the Future of Export Restraints after the China-Rare Earths Decision,” Melbourne Journal of International Law 16 (2015): 398-431. Griffin, Samuel. “The World Trade Organization: A Barrier to Green Energy” Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 22 (Spring 2013): 205. Irwin, Douglas A. “The Smoot-Hawley Tariff: A Quantitative Assessment” Review of Economics and Statistics 80, no. 2 (1998): 326-334. Jelsman, Idsert et. al, “Unpacking Indonesia’s independent oil palm smallholders: An Actor-disaggregated Approach to Identifying Environmental and Social Performance Challenge” Land Use Policy 69 (2017): 281-297. Lester, Simon. “The Problem of Subsidies as a Means of Protectionism: Lessons from the WTO EC – Aircraft Case” Melbourne Journal of International Law 12 (2011): 97-124. Lima, Mairon G. Bastos. “Biofuel Governance and International Legal Principles: Is It Equitable and Sustainable?” Melbourne Journal of International Law 10 (2009): 470. Morgera, Elisa. “Bilateralism at the Service of Community Interest? Non-judicial Enforcement of Global Public Goods in the Context of Global Environmental Law” European Journal of International Law 23, no. 3 (2012): 743-767. Park, David M. “GATT and the Environment: Reconciling Liberal Trade Policies with Environmental Preservation” UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 15, no.2 (1997): 151. Rancourt, Marie-Eve. “Promoting Sustainable biofuel under the WTO Legal Regime,” McGill International Journal of. Sustainable Development Law and Policy 5, no. 1 (2009): 73-114. Sanchez, et.al, “Accounting for Indirect Land-Use Change in the Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuel Supply Chains” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 9 (2012): 1105-1119. Udo, Chandler H. “Japanese Rice Protectionism: A Challenge for the Development of Agricultural Trade Laws” Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 31, no. 1 (2008): 169-184. Williams, Nancy. “The Resilience of Protectionism in U.S. Trade Policy” Boston University Law Review 99 (2019): 683-719. Wolf, Nikolaus. “Europe’s Great Depression: Coordination Failure After the First World War” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 26, no. 3 (2010): 339-369. Web sources Editorial. “EU Bases Planned Palm Oil Restriction on 2015 Data.” The Jakarta Post, Mar. 22, 2019. Accessed 29 May 2019, https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/03/22/eu-bases-planned-palm-oil-restriction-on-2015-data.html. Editorial. “India Announces Retaliatory Trade Tariffs against the US.” BBC, Jun. 15, 2019. Accessed May 29, 2019, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-48650505. Editorial. “The Trump Effect on Trade.” USA Rice, Jun. 13, 2018. Accessed May 29 2019, https://www.usarice.com/news-and-events/publications/usa-rice-daily/article/usa-rice-daily/2018/07/13/the-trump-effect-on-trade. Holland, Ben and Cedric Sam, “A $600 Billion Bill: Counting the Global Cost of the U.S.-China Trade War.” Bloomberg, May 28, 2019. Accessed May 29, 2019, https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2019-us-china-trade-war-economic-fallout/. Indonesian Ministry of Trade. “10 Komoditi Utama dan Potensial [The 10 Primary Commodities and their potential],” Ministry of Trade. Accessed May 29, 2019. http://www.kemendag.go.id/id/economic-profile/10-main-and-potential-commodities. Jingxiang, Su. “US Farmers at Risk of Losing China’s Soya Bean Market Forever.” The Telegraph, Jun.27, 2019. Accessed June 27, 2019. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/china-watch/business/us-risks-losing-china-soybean-market. Krukwoska, Ewa. “Palm Oil is at the Heart of the Next Trade War.” Bloomberg, Mar. 13, 2019. Accessed 29 May 2019. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-13/palm-oil-trade-war-looms-as-europe-sets-limits-on-use-in-biofuel. Lobosco, Katie. “What Trump’s China Trade War Means for You.” CNN, Aug. 2, 2019. Accessed Aug 2, 2019, https://edition.cnn.com/2019/08/02/economy/trade-war-consumer-prices/index.html. Munte, Bernadette Christina & Philip Blekinsop. “Indonesia, Malaysia Send Letter Protesting EU Palm Oil Curbs.” Reuters, April 9, 2019. Accessed May 29, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-malaysia-eu-palmoil/indonesia-malaysia-send-letter-protesting-eu-palm-oil-curbs-idUSKCN1RL0Y6. Pines, Lawrence. “Malaysia’s Commodity Imports & Exports: How Political Stability Fuels a Vibrant Economy.” Commodity. Accessed May 29, 2019. https://commodity.com/malaysia. Raghu, Anuradha. “Malaysia Plans to Halt Palm Oil Expansion to Fight Bad Image.” The Jakarta Post Mar. 2, 2019. Accessed 29 May 2019, https://www.thejakartapost.com/seasia/2019/03/02/malaysia-plans-to-halt-palm-oil-expansion-to-fight-bad-image-.html. Robinson, Elizabeth & Herry Purnomo, “Palm Oil: EU Ban Won’t Save Asian Rainforest, but Here’s What Might Help.” the Jakarta Post, May 7, 2019. Accessed 29 May 2019 https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2019/05/07/palm-oil-eu-ban-wont-save-asian-rainforests-but-heres-what-might-help.html. Rukikaire, Keishamaza & Jennifer Pollak, “Renewable Energy Investment in 2018 Hit USD 288.9 billion, Far Exceeding Fossil Fuel Investment.” United Nations Environment Programme, Jun.18, 2019. Accessed Jun 18, 2019, https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/renewable-energy-investment-2018-hit-usd-2889-billion-far-exceeding. Thukral, Naveen & Emily Chow, “Global 2019 Palm Oil Demand Set for First Contraction in Two Decades.” Reuters, March 4, 2019. Accessed May 29, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-palmoil-outlook-demand/global-2019-palm-oil-demand-set-for-first-contraction-in-two-decades-idUSKCN1QK0RE. Tullis, Paul. “How the World Got Hooked on Palm Oil?” The Guardian, Febaruary 9, 2019. Accessed May 29, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/feb/19/palm-oil-ingredient-biscuits-shampoo-environmental. Workman, Daniel. “Palm Oil Exports by Country.” World’s Top Exports, May 9, 2019. Accessed May 29, 2019, http://www.worldstopexports.com/palm-oil-exports-by-country/. Others Barthel, Mark. et al. “Study on the Environmental Impact of Palm Oil Consumption and on Existing Sustainability Standards for European Commission DG Environment” (Final Report, Luxemburg: European Union, 2017). Available at https://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/palm_oil_study_kh0218208enn_new.pdf. European Union. “European Union Delegation to Indonesia Fact Sheet, EU Anti-Dumping Duties on Biodiesel from Indonesia.” March 23, 2018. Pacheco, Pablo. et. al, “The Palm Oil Global Value Chain: Implication for Economic Growth and Social and Environmental Sustainability,” Center for International Forestry Research Working Paper 220, 2017. Available at www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/.../WP220Pacheco.pdf, Accessed May 29, 2019. Thomas, Melissa. et. al. “Sustainable Sourcing Guide for Palm Oil Users: A Practical Handbook for U.S. Consumer Goods and Retail Companies.” Conservation International and World Wildlife Fund, May 2015. Available at https://www.conservation.org/publications/Documents/CI_Palm-Oil-Sourcing-Guide.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2019.
Blount, P J.
"The shifting sands of space security: The Politics and Law of The Peaceful Uses of Outer Space,"
Indonesian Journal of International Law: Vol. 17
, Article 1.
Available at: https://scholarhub.ui.ac.id/ijil/vol17/iss1/1