Essentially, viewed from the perspective of culture, IPR appears to be a highly embellished and colorful concept. That may be one of the reasons why the implementation of IPR protection in a plural society with diverse interests such as Indonesia invites debate and heated discussion so frequently. Given such circumstances, it would be naïve for anyone to hold on to their own perceptions on IPR without taking into account the existence of other views which are based on subjectivity. Speaking of IPR development, either from the legal, technological or from the economic aspect, IPR cannot be viewed from one single perspective. And this is exactly where the main issue arises. It is often difficult for sectors that are dealing with IPR to take an inclusive standpoint. It is in such context that the cultural study of IPR development becomes significant, both from the economic as well as from the technological point of view. IPR should not be taken out of its context, namely the society in which culture lives and develops.


Abbott, Frederick. et al. The International Intellectual Property System: Commentary and Materials, Part One. Kluwer Law International, 1999. Abbott, Frederick. “Protecting First World Assets in the Third World: Intellectual Property Negotiations in the GATT Multilateral Framework”, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. Vol. 22, No.4, 198. Aquinas, Thomas. The Summa Theologica: On the Essence of Law, (edited with an introduction by Anton C. Pegis. (New York: The Modern Library, no year indicated). Aquinas,Thomas. Summa Theologica, dalam Lord Lloyd of Hampstead, Introduction to Jurisprudence, 3th ed. Praeger Publisher., 1972. Curzon, L.B. Jurisprudence. London: Cavendish Publishing Limited, 1993. Foster, Meika. “The Human Genome Diversity Project and the Patenting of Life: Indigenous People Cry Out”, Canterbury Law Review. Vol. 7, 1999. Kuntjaraningrat. Pengantar Antropologi. Jakarta: Aksara Baru, Cet.V, no year indicated. Ramanna, Anitha. “India’s Plant Variety and Farmers’ Right Legislation: Potential Impact on Stakeholder Access to Genetic Resources”, EPTD Discussion Paper No. 96, International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington: January,2003. Ritchie, Mark.et al. “Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity: The Industrialization of Natural Resources and Traditional Knowledge”, St.Johns Journal of Legal Commentary, Vol. 11, 1996. Sardjono, Agus. Hak Kekayaan Intelektual dan Pengetahuan Tradisional (Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Knowledge). Bandung:Alumni, 2010. Sardjono, Agus. Membumikan HKI di Indonesia (“Down To Earth”/ Materializing IPR in Indonesia). Bandung: Nuansa Aulia, 2009. Sumaryono, E. Etika Hukum: Relevansi Hukum Kodrat Thomas Aquinas (Legal Ethics and The Relevance of Aquinas’ Natural Law).Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2002. Suwarsono & Alvin Y. So, Social Change and Development. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1994. Vaver, David. “Intellectual Property Today: Of Myths and Paradoxes”, Canadian Bar Review, Vol. 69, 1990.